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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Initial lionfish behaviors at different densities of local lionfish and prey fish on reefs in
Eleuthera, Bahamas during 2012
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String This was an observational field study conducted from June - August 2012 to
determine whether lionfish behavior and movements change at different local
lionfish and prey fish densities. \u00a0The study was conducted on sixteen
reefs in Rock Sound, Elethera, The Bahamas.\u00a0 All reefs were at least 300
m from any reef on which lionfish removals had occurred, and were selected to
encompass a range of natural lionfish densities and reef sizes. \u00a0

A pair of divers visited each reef at three times of day: within 2 hours of
sunrise (\u2018dawn\u2019), greater than 3 hours from sunrise or sunset
(\u2018midday\u2019), and within 2 hours of sunset (\u2018dusk\u2019).\u00a0
Upon arriving at a reef, observers counted the number of lionfish present by
conducting lionfish-focused searches.\u00a0 For each lionfish, observers
recorded the size (total length, visually estimated to the nearest cm),
behavior, and location the moment it was sighted.\u00a0 Behaviors were
categorized as resting (sitting on the substrate, not moving), hovering (in
the water column oriented parallel to the bottom, but not moving), swimming
(actively moving), or hunting (oriented head down with pectoral fins
flared).\u00a0 Location was categorized as the microhabitat on which lionfish
were observed (e.g. under a ledge, on top of the reef, in the surrounding
seagrass) and later divided into two major categories: sheltering (hidden
under structure) or exposed (on top of reef or in surrounding area).\u00a0
Then, 10-minute focal observations were conducted on two randomly-selected
lionfish or a single lionfish when there was only one individual present per
reef.\u00a0 During focal observations, a trained observer recorded the
behavior of lionfish at 30-second intervals for 10 minutes using the same
categories as above.\u00a0 The observers also noted any strikes at prey,
successful kills, and obviously aggressive interactions (chases, posturing)
between lionfish or between lionfish and other species.\u00a0 Throughout the
entire visit to each reef, divers noted the time when any lionfish departed
from or arrived at the reef and its behavior.\u00a0 A lionfish was defined as
departing from the reef if it traveled at least 10 m from the reef.\u00a0 A
lionfish was considered arriving at a reef if it swam in from the surrounding
areas and had not been previously observed at that reef during that
observation period.\u00a0 At the conclusion of the focal observations, the
divers re-counted the number of lionfish present while conducting a survey of
resident native fishes.\u00a0 Divers recorded the abundance and body size (TL)
of all fish 1 - 15 cm TL, native mesopredators that are ecologically similar
to lionfish (e.g. Cephalopholis cruentata [graysby grouper]), and top
predators (e.g. Epinephelus striatus [Nassau grouper]) on and within 1 m of
the reef.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 561016
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1233027
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1233027 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Behavior and Movement - Initial Behaviors
Lead PI: Mark Hixon
Sub-Project Lead: Casey Benkwitt
Version 9 August 2016
Species codes are first two letters of genus and species; See species key.
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2016-08-09T19:50:40Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-05-22T18:48:43Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.653662.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/653662 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String bco, bco-dmo, behavior, biological, chemical, code, data, dataset, date, dmo, erddap, location_code, management, oceanography, office, period, preliminary, ptvo, PTVO_size, reef, size, specific, specific_location, time, time_period
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/653662/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/653662 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'653662': {}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/653662/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String University of Hawaii
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Mark Hixon
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 51647
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Oregon State University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String OSU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Cassandra E. Benkwitt
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 51706
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Contact
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Hannah Ake
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 650173
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String BiodiversityLossEffects_lionfish
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String BiodiversityLossEffects_lionfish
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String The Pacific red lionfish (Pterois volitans), a popular aquarium fish, was introduced to the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Florida in the late 20th century. Voraciously consuming small native coral-reef fishes, including the juveniles of fisheries and ecologically important species, the invader has undergone a population explosion that now ranges from the U.S. southeastern seaboard to the Gulf of Mexico and across the greater Caribbean region. The PI's past research determined that invasive lionfish (1) have escaped their natural enemies in the Pacific (lionfish are much less abundant in their native range); (2) are not yet controlled by Atlantic predators, competitors, or parasites; (3) have strong negative effects on populations of native Atlantic fishes; and (4) locally reduce the diversity (number of species) of native fishes. The lionfish invasion has been recognized as one of the major conservation threats worldwide.
The Bahamas support the highest abundances of invasive lionfish globally. This system thus provides an unprecedented opportunity to understand the direct and indirect effects of a major invader on a diverse community, as well as the underlying causative mechanisms. The PI will focus on five related questions: (1) How does long-term predation by lionfish alter the structure of native reef-fish communities? (2) How does lionfish predation destabilize native prey population dynamics, possibly causing local extinctions? (3) Is there a lionfish-herbivore-seaweed trophic cascade on invaded reefs? (4) How do lionfish modify cleaning mutualisms on invaded reefs? (5) Are lionfish reaching densities where natural population limits are evident?
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2016-07
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Three Bahamian sites: 24.8318, -076.3299; 23.8562, -076.2250; 23.7727, -076.1071; Caribbean Netherlands: 12.1599, -068.2820
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Mechanisms and Consequences of Fish Biodiversity Loss on Atlantic Coral Reefs Caused by Invasive Pacific Lionfish
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 561017
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_website String http://hixon.science.oregonstate.edu/content/highlight-lionfish-invasion (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2012-08
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Initial lionfish behaviors at different densities of local lionfish and prey fish on reefs in Eleuthera, Bahamas during 2012
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Initial lionfish behaviors at different densities of local lionfish and prey fish on reefs in Eleuthera, Bahamas during 2012
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable time_period   String  
attribute time_period bcodmo_name String time
attribute time_period description String time of day when lionfish were observed
attribute time_period long_name String Time Period
attribute time_period nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/AHMSAA01/ (external link)
attribute time_period units String unitless
variable behavior   String  
attribute behavior bcodmo_name String behav_code
attribute behavior description String Behavior of lionfish; classified as either resting hovering swimming or hunting
attribute behavior long_name String Behavior
attribute behavior units String unitless
variable date   String  
attribute date bcodmo_name String date
attribute date description String date that reef was surveyed; mm/dd/yy
attribute date long_name String Date
attribute date nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/ (external link)
attribute date units String unitless
variable reef   String  
attribute reef bcodmo_name String site
attribute reef description String reef id where lionfish were observed
attribute reef long_name String Reef
attribute reef units String unitless
variable PTVO_size   byte  
attribute PTVO_size _FillValue byte 127
attribute PTVO_size actual_range byte 6, 30
attribute PTVO_size bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute PTVO_size description String total length of lionfish
attribute PTVO_size long_name String PTVO Size
attribute PTVO_size units String centimeters
variable specific_location   String  
attribute specific_location bcodmo_name String site_descrip
attribute specific_location description String location of lionfish within the reef
attribute specific_location long_name String Specific Location
attribute specific_location units String unitless
variable location_code   byte  
attribute location_code _FillValue byte 127
attribute location_code actual_range byte 0, 1
attribute location_code bcodmo_name String behav_code
attribute location_code description String Binary response: 0 = lionfish sheltering (hidden under structure) 1 = lionfish exposed (on top of the reef or in surrounding area)
attribute location_code long_name String Location Code
attribute location_code units String unitless

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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