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Dataset Title:  Measured and calculated water chemistry parameters throughout a 93-day
acidification and warming experiment
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Institution:  BCO-DMO   (Dataset ID: bcodmo_dataset_735629)
Information:  Summary ? | License ? | ISO 19115 | Metadata | Background (external link) | Files | Make a graph
Variable ?   Optional
Constraint #1 ?
Constraint #2 ?
   Minimum ?
   Maximum ?
 date (unitless) ?          "2015-09-19"    "2015-12-16"
 treatment (unitless) ?          "288_31"    "701_28"
 pCO2 (micro-atmospheres) ?          164.8    4438.4
 temp (Temperature, degrees Celsius) ?          27.2    32.2
 sal (practical salinity units (psu)) ?          31.294    32.124
 pH (unitless) ?          7.12    8.54
 alk (millimol/kilogram (mmol kg-1)) ?          1946.6    2159.6
 DIC (millimol/kilogram (mmol kg-1)) ?          1551.1    2217.4
 pH_cal (unitless) ?          7.249    8.453
 HCO3_cal (millimol/kilogram (mmol kg-1)) ?          1235.2    2075.6
 CO2_cal (millimol/kilogram (mmol kg-1)) ?          4.2    111.0
 CO3_cal (millimol/kilogram (mmol kg-1)) ?          31.6    314.6
 sat_cal (unitless) ?          0.52    5.25
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The Dataset Attribute Structure (.das) for this Dataset

Attributes {
 s {
  date {
    String bcodmo_name "date";
    String description "Date of sample collection formatted as yyyy-mm-dd";
    String long_name "Date";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/";
    String source_name "date";
    String time_precision "1970-01-01";
    String units "unitless";
  treatment {
    String bcodmo_name "treatment";
    String description "Experimental treatment fragment was in: first number represents target pCO2 value; second is the temperature treatment";
    String long_name "Treatment";
    String units "unitless";
  pCO2 {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 164.8, 4438.4;
    String bcodmo_name "pCO2";
    String description "Measured partial pressure of carbon dioxide in tank";
    String long_name "P CO2";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/PCO2C101/";
    String units "micro-atmospheres";
  temp {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 27.2, 32.2;
    String bcodmo_name "temperature";
    String description "Measured temperature in tank";
    String long_name "Temperature";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/TEMPP901/";
    String units "degrees Celsius";
  sal {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 31.294, 32.124;
    String bcodmo_name "sal";
    String description "Measured salinity in tank";
    String long_name "Sal";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/PSALST01/";
    String units "practical salinity units (psu)";
  pH {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 7.12, 8.54;
    String bcodmo_name "pH";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 9.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum 7.0;
    String description "Measured pH in tank; NBS scale";
    String long_name "Sea Water Ph Reported On Total Scale";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/PHXXZZXX/";
    String units "unitless";
  alk {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 1946.6, 2159.6;
    String bcodmo_name "TALK";
    String description "Calculated total alkalinity (TA)";
    String long_name "Alk";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/MDMAP014/";
    String units "millimol/kilogram (mmol kg-1)";
  DIC {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 1551.1, 2217.4;
    String bcodmo_name "DIC";
    String description "Measured dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)";
    String long_name "DIC";
    String units "millimol/kilogram (mmol kg-1)";
  pH_cal {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 7.249, 8.453;
    String bcodmo_name "pH";
    String description "Calculated pH (using CO2SYS); NBS scale";
    String long_name "P H Cal";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/PHXXZZXX/";
    String units "unitless";
  HCO3_cal {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 1235.2, 2075.6;
    String bcodmo_name "bicarbonate";
    String description "Calculated concentration of bicarbonate ion ([HCO3]-) (using CO2SYS)";
    String long_name "HCO3 Cal";
    String units "millimol/kilogram (mmol kg-1)";
  CO2_cal {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 4.2, 111.0;
    String bcodmo_name "TCO2";
    String description "Calculated concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) (using CO2SYS)";
    String long_name "CO2 Cal";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/TCO2KG01/";
    String units "millimol/kilogram (mmol kg-1)";
  CO3_cal {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 31.6, 314.6;
    String bcodmo_name "carbonate";
    String description "Calculated concentration of carbonate ion ([CO3]2-) (using CO2SYS)";
    String long_name "CO3 Cal";
    String units "millimol/kilogram (mmol kg-1)";
  sat_cal {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.52, 5.25;
    String bcodmo_name "OM_ar";
    String description "Calculated aragonite saturation state (using CO2SYS)";
    String long_name "Sat Cal";
    String units "unitless";
    String access_formats ".htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv";
    String acquisition_description 
"Temperature, salinity, and pH measurements were conducted every other day
throughout the experimental period. Temperature was measured using a high
precision partial-immersion glass thermometer (precision \\u00b10.3%; accuracy
\\u00b10.4%). Salinity (\\u00b1SD) was measured using a YSI 3200 conductivity
meter and maintained at 31.7 (\\u00b10.2), with slight natural seasonal
variation as expected in Massachusetts Bay waters. A\\u00a0pH probe calibrated
with 7.00 and 10.01 NBS buffers kept at experimental temperatures was used to
measure pH in each tank. Water samples were taken from each tank every ten
days around 13:00 Eastern Time using 250 mL ground-glass-stoppered
borosilicate glass bottles for analysis of total alkalinity (TA) and dissolved
inorganic carbon (DIC). TA and DIC were measured via coulometry and closed-
cell potentiometric Gran titration, respectively calibrated with certified
Dickson DIC/TA standards. Dissolved CO2 ([CO2 (SW)]), carbonate ion
concentration [CO32\\u2013], bicarbonate ion concentration [HCO3\\u2013], pCO2,
aragonite saturation state, and pH of the seawater from all treatments were
calculated from measured temperature, salinity, DIC, and TA using CO2SYS
(Pierrot et al, 2006) with Roy et al. (1993) carbonic acid constants K1 and K2
and NBS (mol kg\\u20131 H2O) pH scale.
CO2SYS v2.1 was used to calculate carbonate parameters. [http://cdiac.ess-
    String awards_0_award_nid "635862";
    String awards_0_award_number "OCE-1459522";
    String awards_0_data_url "http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1459522";
    String awards_0_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_0_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_0_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_0_program_manager "Michael E. Sieracki";
    String awards_0_program_manager_nid "50446";
    String cdm_data_type "Other";
    String comment 
"water chemistry: OA and warming expt. 
   K. Castillo, C. Bove (UNC-Chapel Hill) 
   version: 2018-05-09";
    String Conventions "COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3";
    String creator_email "info@bco-dmo.org";
    String creator_name "BCO-DMO";
    String creator_type "institution";
    String creator_url "https://www.bco-dmo.org/";
    String data_source "extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3  19 Dec 2019";
    String date_created "2018-05-09T15:14:14Z";
    String date_modified "2019-12-11T20:08:32Z";
    String defaultDataQuery "&time<now";
    String doi "10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.735629.1";
    String history 
"2024-07-16T16:23:41Z (local files)
2024-07-16T16:23:41Z https://erddap.bco-dmo.org/erddap/tabledap/bcodmo_dataset_735629.html";
    String infoUrl "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/735629";
    String institution "BCO-DMO";
    String instruments_0_acronym "CO2 coulometer";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description "Total alkalinity (TA) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were analyzed via coulometry (UIC 5400) and via closed-cell potentiometric Gran titration, respectively (Marianda, VINDTA 3C) calibrated with certified Dickson DIC/TA standards (Scripps Institution of Oceanography; San Diego, California, USA).";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid "735667";
    String instruments_0_description "A CO2 coulometer semi-automatically controls the sample handling and extraction of CO2 from seawater samples. Samples are acidified and the CO2 gas is bubbled into a titration cell where CO2 is converted to hydroxyethylcarbonic acid which is then automatically titrated with a coulometrically-generated base to a colorimetric endpoint.";
    String instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB12";
    String instruments_0_instrument_name "CO2 Coulometer";
    String instruments_0_instrument_nid "507";
    String instruments_0_supplied_name "UIC 5400";
    String instruments_1_acronym "pH Sensor";
    String instruments_1_dataset_instrument_description "The pH probe was calibrated with 7.00 and 10.01 NBS buffers which were kept at experimental temperatures; used to measure pH.";
    String instruments_1_dataset_instrument_nid "735664";
    String instruments_1_description "General term for an instrument that measures the pH or how acidic or basic a solution is.";
    String instruments_1_instrument_name "pH Sensor";
    String instruments_1_instrument_nid "674";
    String instruments_1_supplied_name "accuFet Solid-State pH probe (Fisher Scientific Waltham, Massachusetts, USA)";
    String instruments_2_acronym "inorganic carbon and alkalinity analyser";
    String instruments_2_dataset_instrument_description "Used to measure dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Calibrated with certified Dickson DIC/TA standards (Scripps Institution of Oceanography; San Diego, California, USA).";
    String instruments_2_dataset_instrument_nid "735668";
    String instruments_2_description "The Versatile INstrument for the Determination of Total inorganic carbon and titration Alkalinity (VINDTA) 3C is a laboratory alkalinity titration system combined with an extraction unit for coulometric titration, which simultaneously determines the alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon content of a sample. The sample transport is performed with peristaltic pumps and acid is added to the sample using a membrane pump. No pressurizing system is required and only one gas supply (nitrogen or dry and CO2-free air) is necessary. The system uses a Metrohm Titrino 719S, an ORION-Ross pH electrode and a Metrohm reference electrode. The burette, the pipette and the analysis cell have a water jacket around them. Precision is typically +/- 1 umol/kg for TA and/or DIC in open ocean water.";
    String instruments_2_instrument_external_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L22/current/TOOL0481/";
    String instruments_2_instrument_name "MARIANDA VINDTA 3C total inorganic carbon and titration alkalinity analyser";
    String instruments_2_instrument_nid "686";
    String instruments_2_supplied_name "Marianda, VINDTA 3C";
    String instruments_3_acronym "Conductivity Meter";
    String instruments_3_dataset_instrument_description "Used to measure salinity.";
    String instruments_3_dataset_instrument_nid "735666";
    String instruments_3_description "Conductivity Meter - An electrical conductivity meter (EC meter) measures the electrical conductivity in a solution. Commonly used in hydroponics, aquaculture and freshwater systems to monitor the amount of nutrients, salts or impurities in the water.";
    String instruments_3_instrument_name "Conductivity Meter";
    String instruments_3_instrument_nid "719";
    String instruments_3_supplied_name "YSI 3200 conductivity meter with a 1.0 cm-1 cell (Yellow Springs, Ohio, USA).";
    String instruments_4_dataset_instrument_description "Thermometer precision ±0.3%; accuracy ±0.4%; used to measure temperature.";
    String instruments_4_dataset_instrument_nid "735665";
    String instruments_4_instrument_name "Thermometer";
    String instruments_4_instrument_nid "725867";
    String instruments_4_supplied_name "high precision partial-immersion glass thermometer";
    String keywords "alk, altimetry, bco, bco-dmo, biological, cal, carbon, carbon dioxide, carbonate, chemical, chemistry, co2, CO2_cal, co3, CO3_cal, data, dataset, date, dic, dioxide, dmo, earth, Earth Science > Oceans > Ocean Chemistry > pH, erddap, hco3, HCO3_cal, laboratory, management, ocean, oceanography, oceans, office, pCO2, pH_cal, preliminary, reported, sal, sat, sat_cal, satellite, scale, science, sea, sea_water_ph_reported_on_total_scale, seawater, temperature, time, total, treatment, water";
    String keywords_vocabulary "GCMD Science Keywords";
    String license "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/735629/license";
    String metadata_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/735629";
    String param_mapping "{'735629': {}}";
    String parameter_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/735629/parameters";
    String people_0_affiliation "University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill";
    String people_0_affiliation_acronym "UNC-Chapel Hill";
    String people_0_person_name "Karl D. Castillo";
    String people_0_person_nid "51711";
    String people_0_role "Principal Investigator";
    String people_0_role_type "originator";
    String people_1_affiliation "University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill";
    String people_1_affiliation_acronym "UNC-Chapel Hill";
    String people_1_person_name "Colleen Bove";
    String people_1_person_nid "735588";
    String people_1_role "Student";
    String people_1_role_type "related";
    String people_2_affiliation "University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill";
    String people_2_affiliation_acronym "UNC-Chapel Hill";
    String people_2_person_name "Colleen Bove";
    String people_2_person_nid "735588";
    String people_2_role "Contact";
    String people_2_role_type "related";
    String people_3_affiliation "Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution";
    String people_3_affiliation_acronym "WHOI BCO-DMO";
    String people_3_person_name "Nancy Copley";
    String people_3_person_nid "50396";
    String people_3_role "BCO-DMO Data Manager";
    String people_3_role_type "related";
    String project "Thermal History and Coral Growth";
    String projects_0_acronym "Thermal History and Coral Growth";
    String projects_0_description 
"Description from NSF award abstract:
Rising global ocean surface temperatures have reduced coral growth rates, thereby negatively impacting the health of coral reef ecosystems worldwide. Recent studies on tropical reef building corals reveal that corals' growth in response to ocean warming may be influenced by their previous seawater temperature exposure - their thermal history. Although these recent findings highlight significant variability in coral growth in response to climate change, uncertainty remains as to the spatial scale at which corals' thermal history influences how they have responded to ocean warming and how they will likely respond to predicted future increases in ocean temperature. This study investigates the influence of thermal history on coral growth in response to recent and predicted seawater temperatures increases across four ecologically relevant spatial scales ranging from reef ecosystems, to reef communities, to reef populations, to an individual coral colony. By understanding how corals have responded in the past across a range of ecological scales, the Principal Investigator will be able to improve the ability to predict their susceptibility and resilience, which could then be applied to coral reef conservation in the face of climate change. This research project will broaden the participation of undergraduates from underrepresented groups and educate public radio listeners using minority voices and narratives. The scientist will leverage current and new partnerships to recruit and train minority undergraduates, thus allowing them to engage high school students near field sites in Florida, Belize, and Panama. Through peer advising, undergraduates will document this research on a digital news site for dissemination to the public. The voice of the undergraduates and scientist will ground the production of a public radio feature exploring the topic of acclimatization and resilience - a capacity for stress tolerance within coral reef ecosystems. This project will provide a postdoctoral researcher and several graduate students with opportunities for field and laboratory research training, teaching and mentoring, and professional development. The results will allow policy makers from Florida, the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System countries, and several Central American countries to benefit from Caribbean-scale inferences that incorporate corals' physiological abilities, thereby improving coral reef management for the region.
Coral reefs are at significant risk due to a variety of local and global scale anthropogenic stressors. Although various stressors contribute to the observed decline in coral reef health, recent studies highlight rising seawater temperatures due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration as one of the most significant stressors influencing coral growth rates. However, there is increasing recognition of problems of scale since a coral's growth response to an environmental stressor may be conditional on the scale of description. This research will investigate the following research questions: (1) How has seawater temperature on reef ecosystems (Florida Keys Reef Tract, USA; Belize Barrier Reef System, Belize; and Bocas Del Toro Reef Complex, Panama), reef communities (inshore and offshore reefs), reef populations (individual reefs), and near reef colonies (individual colonies), varied in the past? (2) How has seawater temperature influenced rates of coral growth and how does the seawater temperature-coral growth relationship vary across these four ecological spatial scales? (3) Does the seawater temperature-coral growth relationship forecast rates of coral growth under predicted end-of-century ocean warming at the four ecological spatial scales? Long term sea surface temperature records and small-scale high-resolution in situ seawater temperature measurements will be compared with growth chronologies for the reef building corals Siderastrea siderea and Orbicella faveolata, two keystone species ubiquitously distributed throughout the Caribbean Sea. Nutrients and irradiance will be quantified via satellite-derived observations, in situ measurements, and established colorimetric protocols. Field and laboratory experiments will be combined to examine seawater temperature-coral growth relationships under recent and predicted end-of-century ocean warming at four ecologically relevant spatial scales. The findings of this study will help us bridge the temperature-coral growth response gap across ecologically relevant spatial scales and thus improve our understanding of how corals have responded to recent warming. This will lead to more meaningful predictions about future coral growth response to climate change.";
    String projects_0_end_date "2018-02";
    String projects_0_geolocation "Western Caribbean";
    String projects_0_name "Investigating the influence of thermal history on coral growth response to recent and predicted end-of-century ocean warming across a cascade of ecological scales";
    String projects_0_project_nid "635863";
    String projects_0_project_website "http://www.unc.edu/~kdcastil/research.html";
    String projects_0_start_date "2015-03";
    String publisher_name "Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)";
    String publisher_type "institution";
    String sourceUrl "(local files)";
    String standard_name_vocabulary "CF Standard Name Table v55";
    String summary "This water chemistry data set includes water temperature, salinity, and pH of all 24 experimental aquaria measured every other day throughout the 93-day ocean acidification and warming experiment. Additionally, the data include the measured (temperature, salinity, total alkalinity, and dissolved inorganic carbon) and calculated (Dissolved CO2, carbonate ion concentration, bicarbonate ion concentration], pCO2, aragonite saturation state, and pH) carbonate parameters from water samples taken every 10 days during the experiment. These data were used to determine the experimental conditions of each treatment that the corals were exposed to.";
    String title "Measured and calculated water chemistry parameters throughout a 93-day acidification and warming experiment";
    String version "1";
    String xml_source "osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3";


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