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Dataset Title:  Table 3: Calanus finmarchicus and Meganyctiphanes norvegica egg hatching
success, 2011-2012
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Institution:  BCO-DMO   (Dataset ID: bcodmo_dataset_738651)
Information:  Summary ? | License ? | ISO 19115 | Metadata | Background (external link) | Files | Make a graph
Variable ?   Optional
Constraint #1 ?
Constraint #2 ?
   Minimum ?
   Maximum ?
 EXPERIMENT (#) ?          1    13
 STARTDATE (unitless) ?          "4/19/2012"    "9/28/2011"
 SPECIES (name) ?          "C. finmarchicus"    "M. norvegica"
 SOURCE (text) ?          "LAB"    "WILD"
 DURATION (hours) ?          49    139
 TANK (#) ?          1    6
 AVERAGE_TEMP (degrees C) ?          3.5    15.73
 AVERAGE_PHTTL (pH units) ?          6.026    8.023
 HS1 (percent) ?          0.0    100.0
 HS2 (percent) ?          0.0    100.0
 HS3 (percent) ?          -99.0    93.3
 HS4 (percent) ?          -99.0    90.0
 HS5 (percent) ?          -99.0    92.9
 HS6 (percent) ?          -99.0    100.0
 HS7 (percent) ?          -99.0    56.7
 HS8 (percent) ?          -99.0    80.0
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The Dataset Attribute Structure (.das) for this Dataset

Attributes {
 s {
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 1, 13;
    String bcodmo_name "exp_id";
    String description "Number of the experiment";
    String long_name "EXPERIMENT";
    String units "#";
    String bcodmo_name "date_start";
    String description "Date the experiment began in mm/dd/yyyy format.";
    String long_name "STARTDATE";
    String source_name "STARTDATE";
    String time_precision "1970-01-01";
    String units "unitless";
    String bcodmo_name "taxon";
    String description "Name of the species";
    String long_name "SPECIES";
    String units "name";
    String bcodmo_name "sample_descrip";
    String description "Freshly caught or lab-maintained females";
    String long_name "SOURCE";
    String units "text";
    Int16 _FillValue 32767;
    Int16 actual_range 49, 139;
    String bcodmo_name "time_elapsed";
    String description "Elapsed time for eggs in the tanks";
    String long_name "DURATION";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ELTMZZZZ/";
    String units "hours";
  TANK {
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 1, 6;
    String bcodmo_name "replicate";
    String description "Number of the tank";
    String long_name "TANK";
    String units "#";
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 3.5, 15.73;
    String bcodmo_name "temperature";
    String description "Tank average of temperatures in Table 2";
    String long_name "AVERAGE TEMP";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/TEMPP901/";
    String units "degrees C";
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 6.026, 8.023;
    String bcodmo_name "pH";
    String description "Tank average of pHttl in Table 2";
    String long_name "AVERAGE PHTTL";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/PHXXZZXX/";
    String units "pH units";
  HS1 {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.0, 100.0;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "% of eggs which hatched in replicate 1";
    String long_name "HS1";
    String units "percent";
  HS2 {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.0, 100.0;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "% of eggs which hatched in replicate 2";
    String long_name "HS2";
    String units "percent";
  HS3 {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range -99.0, 93.3;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "% of eggs which hatched in replicate 3";
    String long_name "HS3";
    String units "percent";
  HS4 {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range -99.0, 90.0;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "% of eggs which hatched in replicate 4";
    String long_name "HS4";
    String units "percent";
  HS5 {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range -99.0, 92.9;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "% of eggs which hatched in replicate 5";
    String long_name "HS5";
    String units "percent";
  HS6 {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range -99.0, 100.0;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "% of eggs which hatched in replicate 6";
    String long_name "HS6";
    String units "percent";
  HS7 {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range -99.0, 56.7;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "% of eggs which hatched in replicate 7";
    String long_name "HS7";
    String units "percent";
  HS8 {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range -99.0, 80.0;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "% of eggs which hatched in replicate 8";
    String long_name "HS8";
    String units "percent";
    String access_formats ".htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv";
    String acquisition_description 
"Overview:\\u00a0 The goal of these laboratory experiments were to determine the
degree to which lowered seawater pH would inhibit egg hatching success in
marine zooplankton and specifically in the copepod, Calanus
finmarchicus.\\u00a0 To do this, adult female zooplankton were collected at an
open coastal site.\\u00a0 The eggs from these females were then collected and
incubated for several days in several tanks of seawater bubbled with premixed
gas at a specific CO2\\u00a0content.\\u00a0 The proportion of eggs which hatched
were determined in replicate.\\u00a0 While the eggs were being incubated,
waters in each tank were monitored with sensors for temperature, salinity, pH,
and dissolved oxygen.\\u00a0 Once or twice during an experiment, 2 L of
seawater were withdrawn for measurement of the carbonate system parameters
(salinity, alkalinity, total carbon dioxide) and nutrient
concentrations.\\u00a0 From these high-precision carbonate measurements, the
total pH and other carbonate system parameters were calculated.\\u00a0 Thus,
inhibition of hatching success was related to the pH of the tanks.
Egg Collection:\\u00a0 Zooplankton were collected from an open coastal
site\\u00a0 (43.7474 N, 69.5010 W) nearby the University of Maine's Darling
Marine Center, using a 1-m 300 m mesh ring net towed from 100 m to the
surface.\\u00a0 Sufficient quantities of seawater was also collected from 30-40
m depth for most experiments.\\u00a0 The copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, was
studied in experiments 1-3 and 6-13, while the euphausid, Meganyctiphanes
norvegica, was used in experiments 4 and 5.\\u00a0 Females were separated from
the catch and allowed to release their eggs for about a day.\\u00a0 On
occasional experiments, insufficient numbers of females were collected to
supply the numbers of eggs required in an experiment.\\u00a0 In this case, C.
finmarchicus eggs from females maintained in the laboratory were used
instead.\\u00a0 These females were maintained at 6C and were fed twice daily at
concentrations of >500 g C L-1\\u00a0with an equal mixture of Gymnodinium sp.,
Rhodomonas sp. and Oxyrrhis marina.\\u00a0 For experiments with the laboratory-
maintained females, waters used in the experimental tanks were those pumped
from the Marine Center's dock into the marine aquarium building, which housed
our laboratory.\\u00a0 The estuary's seawater was only slightly less saline
(salinities of 30.2-31.1) than the open coastal waters (31.1-32.4).\\u00a0 All
seawaters used were filtered through 1.0 m filters.
Incubations at differing pH:\\u00a0 After obtaining sufficient numbers of eggs,
the eggs were separated in replicate Petri dishes with 30 eggs per dish.\\u00a0
The dishes were specially modified with Nitex screen to allow exchange between
the interior of the dish and the surrounding seawater.\\u00a0 Between 3 and 5
tanks containing 12.5 L of seawater had been bubbled with specialty-purchased
gas mixtures of 20% oxygen, a preselected CO2\\u00a0concentration (between 913
and 15,290 ppm), and the remainder nitrogen.\\u00a0 One experiment (experiment
7) used two gases to reach a very low pH, one gas cylinder containing 50,000
ppm CO2\\u00a0in N2, and one containing 913 ppm CO2\\u00a0in 20% O2\\u00a0and the
remainder N2.\\u00a0 In this tank, the dissolved oxygen content in the tank
remained about the same level as the other tanks in the experiment, above 70%
of saturation.\\u00a0 Each experiment was begun by placing up to 8 replicate
Petri dishes with the eggs into each tank.\\u00a0 The tanks were maintained in
this state for about 24 hours past the hatching time determined by McLaren et
al. (1969) for the particular temperature.\\u00a0 The experiment ended by
removing the replicate Petri dishes and manually counting the number of
nauplii contained within each petri dish.\\u00a0 Hatching success was the
percentage of nauplii counted relative to the number of eggs initially in the
    String awards_0_award_nid "54712";
    String awards_0_award_number "OCE-1041081";
    String awards_0_data_url "http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1041081";
    String awards_0_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_0_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_0_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_0_program_manager "David L. Garrison";
    String awards_0_program_manager_nid "50534";
    String cdm_data_type "Other";
    String comment 
"Calanus finmarchicus and Meganyctiphanes norvegica egg hatching success 
   OCEAN PH AFFECTS CALANUS EGGS - TABLE 3, Preziosi, et al (2017) Mar. Bio. DOI 10.1007/s00227-017-3243-5 
   PI's: J. Christensen (Green Eyes LLC), J. Runge (GMRI) 
   version: 2018-06-13";
    String Conventions "COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3";
    String creator_email "info@bco-dmo.org";
    String creator_name "BCO-DMO";
    String creator_type "institution";
    String creator_url "https://www.bco-dmo.org/";
    String data_source "extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3  19 Dec 2019";
    String date_created "2018-06-18T14:28:18Z";
    String date_modified "2019-12-04T15:40:37Z";
    String defaultDataQuery "&time<now";
    String doi "10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.738651.1";
    String history 
"2022-08-08T23:18:45Z (local files)
2022-08-08T23:18:45Z https://erddap.bco-dmo.org/erddap/tabledap/bcodmo_dataset_738651.html";
    String infoUrl "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/738651";
    String institution "BCO-DMO";
    String instruments_0_acronym "Benchtop pH Meter";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description "Adapted so that the millivolt out was logged by computer through a 14 bit A to D converter. The electrode was an Orion Ross ultra semi-micro glass electrode model 8103-BNUWP.";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid "738657";
    String instruments_0_description 
"An instrument consisting of an electronic voltmeter and pH-responsive electrode that gives a direct conversion of voltage differences to differences of pH at the measurement temperature.  (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms) 
This instrument does not map to the NERC instrument vocabulary term for 'pH Sensor' which measures values in the water column.  Benchtop models are typically employed for stationary lab applications.";
    String instruments_0_instrument_name "Benchtop pH Meter";
    String instruments_0_instrument_nid "681";
    String instruments_0_supplied_name "Corning model 109";
    String instruments_1_dataset_instrument_description "Used to count eggs and nauplii.";
    String instruments_1_dataset_instrument_nid "738825";
    String instruments_1_description "Instruments that generate enlarged images of samples using the phenomena of reflection and absorption of visible light. Includes conventional and inverted instruments. Also called a \"light microscope\".";
    String instruments_1_instrument_external_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB05/";
    String instruments_1_instrument_name "Microscope-Optical";
    String instruments_1_instrument_nid "708";
    String keywords "average, AVERAGE_PHTTL, AVERAGE_TEMP, bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, data, dataset, dmo, duration, erddap, experiment, hs1, hs2, hs3, hs4, hs5, hs6, hs7, hs8, management, oceanography, office, phttl, preliminary, source, species, startdate, tank, temperature, time";
    String license "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/738651/license";
    String metadata_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/738651";
    String param_mapping "{'738651': {}}";
    String parameter_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/738651/parameters";
    String people_0_affiliation "Green Eyes LLC";
    String people_0_person_name "John P Christensen";
    String people_0_person_nid "51603";
    String people_0_role "Principal Investigator";
    String people_0_role_type "originator";
    String people_1_affiliation "Gulf of Maine Research Institute";
    String people_1_affiliation_acronym "GMRI";
    String people_1_person_name "Jeffrey A. Runge";
    String people_1_person_nid "50905";
    String people_1_role "Co-Principal Investigator";
    String people_1_role_type "originator";
    String people_2_affiliation "Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution";
    String people_2_affiliation_acronym "WHOI BCO-DMO";
    String people_2_person_name "Nancy Copley";
    String people_2_person_nid "50396";
    String people_2_role "BCO-DMO Data Manager";
    String people_2_role_type "related";
    String project "OA Calanus Survival";
    String projects_0_acronym "OA Calanus Survival";
    String projects_0_description 
"The project description is a modification of the original NSF award abstract.
This research project is part of the larger NSF funded CRI-OA collaborative research initiative and was funded as an Ocean Acidification-Category 1, 2010 award. While attention concerning impacts of predicted acidification of the world's oceans has focused on calcifying organisms, non-calcifying plankton may also be vulnerable. In this project, the investigator will evaluate the potential for impacts of ocean acidification on the reproductive success of three species of planktonic copepods in the genus Calanus that are prominent in high latitude oceans. C. finmarchicus dominates the mesozooplankton biomass across much of the coastal and deep North Atlantic Ocean. C. glacialis and the larger C. hyperboreus are among the most abundant planktonic copepods in the Arctic Ocean. Previous research showed that hatching success of C. finmarchicus eggs was severely inhibited by increased CO2 and lower pH in seawater, but only tested at an extreme level. Preliminary results in the investigator's laboratory indicate that hatching success of C. finmarchicus is substantially reduced at increased seawater CO2 concentrations corresponding to pH levels between 7.9 and 7.5. Predictions of likely decline of surface pH levels to 7.7-7.8 over the next century raise questions about impacts on Calanus population dynamics if these preliminary results are confirmed. C. finmarchicus, for example, is presently at the southern edge of its range in the Gulf of Maine. The combination of higher surface layer temperature and lower pH may inhibit reproductive success during the late summer/fall bloom, which the PI hypothesize is critical to sustain the overwintering stock in this region. The investigators will collect C. finmarchicus females from the Gulf of Maine and, with the assistance of Canadian colleagues, C. glacialis and C. hyperboreus females from the deep lower St. Lawrence Estuary. They will conduct laboratory experiments in which hatching success, development and growth of Calanus nauplius stages are measured in controls of natural seawater and at a series of treatments in which CO2 concentrations, pH and temperature are rigorously controlled to represent possible future states of the northern ocean. The investigators will measure present surface and deep pCO2 and pH across the Gulf of Maine, including its deep basins, during a research cruise. The study will evaluate the hypothesis that predicted levels of CO2 increase in the northern ocean will impact population dynamics of the Calanus species. Using the results from the research cruise and a recently developed 1-D, Individual-Based life cycle model, the PI will explore in detail scenarios of impact of higher temperature and lower surface and deep pH on population dynamics of C. finmarchicus in the Gulf of Maine.
The lipid-rich Calanus species are considered key intermediary links between primary production and higher trophic levels in North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean food webs. Impacts of higher surface temperature and lower pH on reproductive success may potentially lead to profound changes in energy transfer and structure of pelagic ecosystems in the northern oceans. In the Gulf of Maine, C. finmarchicus serves as primary prey for herring, sand lance, and mackerel, as well as the endangered northern right whale, warranting thorough evaluation of ocean acidification effects on its population dynamics.";
    String projects_0_end_date "2013-10";
    String projects_0_geolocation "Gulf of Maine";
    String projects_0_name "Ocean Acidification-Category 1- Impact of ocean acidification on survival of early life stages of planktonic copepods in the genus Calanus in the northern";
    String projects_0_project_nid "2184";
    String projects_0_start_date "2010-11";
    String publisher_name "Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)";
    String publisher_type "institution";
    String sourceUrl "(local files)";
    String standard_name_vocabulary "CF Standard Name Table v55";
    String summary "This dataset reports hatching success for eggs of Calanus finmarchicus and Meganyctiphanes norvegica. Average temperature and pH are reported as well as hatching success for each replicate dish of eggs. Results are published in Preziosi et al (2017), Table 3.";
    String title "Table 3: Calanus finmarchicus and Meganyctiphanes norvegica egg hatching success, 2011-2012";
    String version "1";
    String xml_source "osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3";


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