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Dataset Title:  Vulnerability of coral reefs to bioerosion from land-based sources of
pollution using parameters quantified by computerized tomography.
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Institution:  BCO-DMO   (Dataset ID: bcodmo_dataset_739309)
Information:  Summary ? | License ? | ISO 19115 | Metadata | Background (external link) | Files | Make a graph
Variable ?   Optional
Constraint #1 ?
Constraint #2 ?
   Minimum ?
   Maximum ?
 Date (unitless) ?          "2013-07-10"    "2013-07-11"
 latitude (degrees_north) ?          20.9373    20.9451
  < slider >
 longitude (degrees_east) ?          -156.6935    -156.6931
  < slider >
 Sample_ID (unitless) ?          "LobataHead01"    "LobataHead07"
 Core_Length (centimeters) ?          18    50
 depth (Water Depth, m) ?          1.0    3.0
  < slider >
 Lifespan (years) ?          21    43
 Tissue_thickness (milimeters) ?          4.0    5.6
 Growth_rate (centimeters per year) ?          0.69    1.17
 Density (grams per centimeters cubed) ?          0.99    1.15
 Bioerosion_volume (percent) ?          2.2    14.6
 Calcification_rate (grams per square centimeter per year) ?          0.67    1.1
 Bioerosion_rate (miligrams per square centimeter per year) ?          22.58    99.15
 delta_N_15 (per mil) ?          7.5    17.08
 delta_N_15_error (per mil) ?          0.12    1.76
Server-side Functions ?
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The Dataset Attribute Structure (.das) for this Dataset

Attributes {
 s {
  Date {
    String bcodmo_name "date";
    String description "Date of collection; yyyy-mm-dd";
    String long_name "Date";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/";
    String source_name "Date";
    String time_precision "1970-01-01";
    String units "unitless";
  latitude {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Lat";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range 20.9373, 20.9451;
    String axis "Y";
    String bcodmo_name "latitude";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 90.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -90.0;
    String description "Latitude";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Latitude";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/";
    String standard_name "latitude";
    String units "degrees_north";
  longitude {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Lon";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range -156.6935, -156.6931;
    String axis "X";
    String bcodmo_name "longitude";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 180.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -180.0;
    String description "Logitude";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Longitude";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/";
    String standard_name "longitude";
    String units "degrees_east";
  Sample_ID {
    String bcodmo_name "sample";
    String description "Sample ID number";
    String long_name "Sample ID";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/ACYC/";
    String units "unitless";
  Core_Length {
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 18, 50;
    String bcodmo_name "depth_core";
    String description "Core length";
    String long_name "Core Length";
    String units "centimeters";
  depth {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Height";
    String _CoordinateZisPositive "down";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range 1.0, 3.0;
    String axis "Z";
    String bcodmo_name "depth";
    String description "Water depth";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Water Depth";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/DEPH/";
    String positive "down";
    String standard_name "depth";
    String units "m";
  Lifespan {
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 21, 43;
    String bcodmo_name "age";
    String description "Life span";
    String long_name "Lifespan";
    String units "years";
  Tissue_thickness {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 4.0, 5.6;
    String bcodmo_name "width";
    String description "Tissue thickness";
    String long_name "Tissue Thickness";
    String units "milimeters";
  Growth_rate {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.69, 1.17;
    String bcodmo_name "growth";
    String description "Growth rate";
    String long_name "Growth Rate";
    String units "centimeters per year";
  Density {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.99, 1.15;
    String bcodmo_name "density";
    String description "Density";
    String long_name "Density";
    String units "grams per centimeters cubed";
  Bioerosion_volume {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 2.2, 14.6;
    String bcodmo_name "volume";
    String description "Bioerosion volume";
    String long_name "Bioerosion Volume";
    String units "percent";
  Calcification_rate {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.67, 1.1;
    String bcodmo_name "calcification";
    String description "Calcification rate";
    String long_name "Calcification Rate";
    String units "grams per square centimeter per year";
  Bioerosion_rate {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 22.58, 99.15;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Bioerosion rate";
    String long_name "Bioerosion Rate";
    String units "miligrams per square centimeter per year";
  delta_N_15 {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 7.5, 17.08;
    String bcodmo_name "d15N_bio";
    String description "Coral tissue nitrogen isotope";
    String long_name "Delta N 15";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/IRBO/";
    String units "per mil";
  delta_N_15_error {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.12, 1.76;
    String bcodmo_name "d15N_bio";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 50.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum 0.0;
    String description "Standard error for coral tissue nitrogen isotope";
    String long_name "Delta N 15 Error";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/IRBO/";
    String units "per mil";
    String access_formats ".htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson";
    String acquisition_description 
"Coral cores (n57) were collected in July 2013 from the shallow reef at
Kahekili in Kaanapali, West Maui, Hawaii, from scleractinian Porites lobata
(Figure 1) in water depths of between 1 and 3 m and in the vicinity of
brackish SGD \"seeps\" near Kahekili Beach Park (Glenn et al., 2013),
approximately 0.5 km southwest of the LWRF (Table 1). All cores were collected
from living Porites spp., except for adjacent to the seep where the coral
colony was dead upon collection. Colonies were selected based on several
criteria including distance from shore, distance from seep, coral shape, and
water depth. Metrics of coral reef health (bioerosion,calcification, and
growth rate) were quantified at the Woods Hole Oceanographic
Institution\\u2019s CT Scanning Facility (Crook et al., 2013) where CT scan
images (supporting information Figure S1) were used to calculate the
proportion of the skeleton eroded (&gt;1 mm boring diameter) by boring
organisms and calculated as the total volume of CaCO3 removed relative to the
total volume of the individual Porites coral core (Barkley et al., 2015;
DeCarlo et al., 2015) using coral CT (DeCarlo & Cohen, 2016). The average
growth rate reported in this study is the average linear extension rate and
respective standard deviation for the length of cores analyzed per site.
Pearson correlation coefficients and respective p values were calculated in
Excel. Significance levels were tested at the 95% and 90% confidence level.
The number of years for analysis ranged from the upper 10\\u201326 years and
was calculated as linear extension (mm) per year. The range (i.e., length of
core analyzed) reflects the fact that the quality/preservation of banding was
not consistent across the collection sites due to differences in boring and
erosion (supporting information Figure S1). In comparison to measured
bioerosion rates, predicted bioerosion rates were calculated using the
equation from DeCarlo et al. (2015) where bioerosion rate5211.96 *
Xarag143.52. Coral life spans were calculated based on annual growth rate and
core length. Coral life span for the dead specimen was determined by comparing
bomb-derived radiocarbon (14C) values measured at five depth intervals to
reference bomb-curves from Hawaii (Andrews et al., 2016). Samples were
prepared for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon(14C) dating at
the National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (NOSAMS) facility.
Coral nitrogen isotope (d15N) values were determined by collecting skeletal
material (\\u0003300 mg) from the upper 4.0\\u20135.6 mm of growth.
Approximately 18 mg of material was placed into tin capsules with an
approximately equivalent mass of vanadium oxide (V2O5) catalyst to ensure
complete combustion for analysis using a Costech elemental
analyzer\\u2014Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS) at the University of
California at Santa Cruz and the USGS Stable Isotope Lab to determine d15N
composition. Analytical uncertainty of0.16&amp;is reported based on replicate
analysis of the international nitrogen standard, acetanilide.
Sampling for water at the primary seep site and in adjacent coastal waters was
conducted in September 2014 and March 2016. In 2014, sampling of the submarine
springs was conducted using a piezometer point directly inserted into the
primary seep site (Swarzenski et al., 2012) and a 12 V peristaltic pump during
both high and low tide (supporting information Table S1). At each sampling
site, the salinity and temperature of the seep water and bottom water was
recorded using calibrated YSI multiprobes. Seawater sampling in March 2016 was
conducted near the coral sites every 4 h over a 6 day period for nutrients and
carbonate chemistry variables. A peristaltic pump was used to pump seawater
from the seafloor and temperature and salinity were recorded using a
calibrated YSI multimeter. In situ temperatures were also recorded
fromSolonist CTD Divers installed at each sampling tube (Prouty et al., 2017).";
    String awards_0_award_nid "655203";
    String awards_0_award_number "OCE-1537338";
    String awards_0_data_url "http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1537338";
    String awards_0_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_0_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_0_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_0_program_manager "David L. Garrison";
    String awards_0_program_manager_nid "50534";
    String cdm_data_type "Other";
    String comment 
"Vulnerability of coral reefs to bioerosion 
  A. Cohen and N. Prouty, PIs 
  Version 27 June 2018";
    String Conventions "COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3";
    String creator_email "info@bco-dmo.org";
    String creator_name "BCO-DMO";
    String creator_type "institution";
    String creator_url "https://www.bco-dmo.org/";
    String data_source "extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3  19 Dec 2019";
    String date_created "2018-06-27T14:17:36Z";
    String date_modified "2019-06-07T19:18:43Z";
    String defaultDataQuery "&amp;time&lt;now";
    String doi "10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.739309.1";
    Float64 Easternmost_Easting -156.6931;
    Float64 geospatial_lat_max 20.9451;
    Float64 geospatial_lat_min 20.9373;
    String geospatial_lat_units "degrees_north";
    Float64 geospatial_lon_max -156.6931;
    Float64 geospatial_lon_min -156.6935;
    String geospatial_lon_units "degrees_east";
    Float64 geospatial_vertical_max 3.0;
    Float64 geospatial_vertical_min 1.0;
    String geospatial_vertical_positive "down";
    String geospatial_vertical_units "m";
    String history 
"2021-10-24T16:44:53Z (local files)
2021-10-24T16:44:53Z https://erddap.bco-dmo.org/erddap/tabledap/bcodmo_dataset_739309.html";
    String infoUrl "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/739309";
    String institution "BCO-DMO";
    String instruments_0_acronym "CT Scanner";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description "The cores were passed through the Siemens Volume Zoom Spiral computed tomography (CT) scanner at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid "739317";
    String instruments_0_description "A CT scan makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual \"slices\") of specific areas of a scanned object.";
    String instruments_0_instrument_name "Computerized Tomography (CT) Scanner";
    String instruments_0_instrument_nid "707113";
    String instruments_0_supplied_name "Siemens Volume Zoom Spiral computed tomography (CT) scanner";
    String keywords "bco, bco-dmo, bioerosion, Bioerosion_rate, Bioerosion_volume, biological, calcification, Calcification_rate, chemical, core, Core_Length, data, dataset, date, delta, delta_N_15, delta_N_15_error, density, depth, dmo, erddap, error, growth, Growth_rate, latitude, length, lifespan, longitude, management, oceanography, office, preliminary, rate, sample, Sample_ID, thickness, time, tissue, Tissue_thickness, volume, water, Water_depth";
    String license "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/739309/license";
    String metadata_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/739309";
    Float64 Northernmost_Northing 20.9451;
    String param_mapping "{'739309': {'Latitude': 'flag - latitude', 'Water_depth': 'master - depth', 'Longitude': 'flag - longitude'}}";
    String parameter_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/739309/parameters";
    String people_0_affiliation "Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution";
    String people_0_affiliation_acronym "WHOI";
    String people_0_person_name "Anne L Cohen";
    String people_0_person_nid "51428";
    String people_0_role "Principal Investigator";
    String people_0_role_type "originator";
    String people_1_affiliation "United States Geological Survey";
    String people_1_affiliation_acronym "USGS";
    String people_1_person_name "Nancy Prouty";
    String people_1_person_nid "739319";
    String people_1_role "Co-Principal Investigator";
    String people_1_role_type "originator";
    String people_2_affiliation "Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution";
    String people_2_affiliation_acronym "WHOI";
    String people_2_person_name "Anne L Cohen";
    String people_2_person_nid "51428";
    String people_2_role "Contact";
    String people_2_role_type "related";
    String people_3_affiliation "Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution";
    String people_3_affiliation_acronym "WHOI BCO-DMO";
    String people_3_person_name "Hannah Ake";
    String people_3_person_nid "650173";
    String people_3_role "BCO-DMO Data Manager";
    String people_3_role_type "related";
    String project "Coral climate effects";
    String projects_0_acronym "Coral climate effects";
    String projects_0_description 
"Text from the NSF award abstract:
Human carbon dioxide emissions are causing measureable changes in ocean conditions. Many of these changes negatively affect coral reef ecosystems, reducing their ability to provide food, arable land, tourist destinations and coastline protection for hundreds of millions of people worldwide. This project focuses on the effects of enhanced stratification, caused by ocean warming, on the growth of reef-building corals across the Caribbean and Bermuda. Enhanced stratification impacts primary productivity which generates food for corals. Initial data generated by the investigators suggest that Atlantic coral growth has declined in the last 5 decades in response to these changes. A laboratory-based experiment is designed to test this hypothesis. If verified, the projected decline in Atlantic primary productivity through the 21st century could potentially rival and will certainly exacerbate the effects of warming and ocean acidification on coral reef ecosystems across the North Atlantic. Support is provided for graduate research, and undergraduate participation is facilitated through the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Summer Fellowship and the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences-Princeton Environmental Institute Summer Internship Programs. The results will be presented at national and international meetings and disseminated in a timely manner through peer-reviewed publications. All data produced through this program will be archived in the Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office.
Anthropogenic climate change has emerged as a principle threat to coral reef survival in the 21st century. In addition to ocean warming and acidification, global climate models project enhanced stratification of the upper oceans through the 21st century and a consequent decline in productivity, by up to 50%, in the North Atlantic. This project employs controlled laboratory manipulation experiments to test the link between productivity and growth of the dominant reef-building corals across the Caribbean and Bermuda. Preliminary data generated by the investigators, including multi-decade long coral growth histories and nitrogen isotope ratios of coral tissue and skeleton, suggest that coral growth across the region has declined over the past 50 years in response to productivity changes already underway. If the link between ocean circulation, productivity decline, and coral growth is verified, the projected 21st century decline in productivity could rival and will certainly exacerbate the effects of warming and ocean acidification on North Atlantic coral reef ecosystems.";
    String projects_0_end_date "2017-08";
    String projects_0_geolocation "Bermuda and wider Caribbean";
    String projects_0_name "Collaborative Research: Identifying the Role of Basin-scale Climate Variability in the Decline of Atlantic Corals";
    String projects_0_project_nid "655204";
    String projects_0_start_date "2015-09";
    String publisher_name "Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)";
    String publisher_type "institution";
    String sourceUrl "(local files)";
    Float64 Southernmost_Northing 20.9373;
    String standard_name_vocabulary "CF Standard Name Table v55";
    String summary "Coral Growth Parameters Quantified by Computerized Tomography (CT) for Growth Rate (cm/yr), Density (g/cm3), and Calcification Rates (g/cm2/yr), Percent Volume Erosion (%), Measured Bioerosion Rate (mg/ cm2/ yr), Predicted Bioerosion Rate (mg/cm2/ yr) Based on DeCarlo et al (2015).";
    String title "Vulnerability of coral reefs to bioerosion from land-based sources of pollution using parameters quantified by computerized tomography.";
    String version "1";
    Float64 Westernmost_Easting -156.6935;
    String xml_source "osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3";


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