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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Vulnerability of coral reefs to bioerosion from land-based sources of pollution using
parameters quantified by computerized tomography.
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Coral cores (n57) were collected in July 2013 from the shallow reef at
Kahekili in Kaanapali, West Maui, Hawaii, from scleractinian Porites lobata
(Figure 1) in water depths of between 1 and 3 m and in the vicinity of
brackish SGD "seeps" near Kahekili Beach Park (Glenn et al., 2013),
approximately 0.5 km southwest of the LWRF (Table 1). All cores were collected
from living Porites spp., except for adjacent to the seep where the coral
colony was dead upon collection. Colonies were selected based on several
criteria including distance from shore, distance from seep, coral shape, and
water depth. Metrics of coral reef health (bioerosion,calcification, and
growth rate) were quantified at the Woods Hole Oceanographic
Institution\u2019s CT Scanning Facility (Crook et al., 2013) where CT scan
images (supporting information Figure S1) were used to calculate the
proportion of the skeleton eroded (>1 mm boring diameter) by boring
organisms and calculated as the total volume of CaCO3 removed relative to the
total volume of the individual Porites coral core (Barkley et al., 2015;
DeCarlo et al., 2015) using coral CT (DeCarlo & Cohen, 2016). The average
growth rate reported in this study is the average linear extension rate and
respective standard deviation for the length of cores analyzed per site.
Pearson correlation coefficients and respective p values were calculated in
Excel. Significance levels were tested at the 95% and 90% confidence level.
The number of years for analysis ranged from the upper 10\u201326 years and
was calculated as linear extension (mm) per year. The range (i.e., length of
core analyzed) reflects the fact that the quality/preservation of banding was
not consistent across the collection sites due to differences in boring and
erosion (supporting information Figure S1). In comparison to measured
bioerosion rates, predicted bioerosion rates were calculated using the
equation from DeCarlo et al. (2015) where bioerosion rate5211.96 *
Xarag143.52. Coral life spans were calculated based on annual growth rate and
core length. Coral life span for the dead specimen was determined by comparing
bomb-derived radiocarbon (14C) values measured at five depth intervals to
reference bomb-curves from Hawaii (Andrews et al., 2016). Samples were
prepared for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon(14C) dating at
the National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (NOSAMS) facility.

Coral nitrogen isotope (d15N) values were determined by collecting skeletal
material (\u0003300 mg) from the upper 4.0\u20135.6 mm of growth.
Approximately 18 mg of material was placed into tin capsules with an
approximately equivalent mass of vanadium oxide (V2O5) catalyst to ensure
complete combustion for analysis using a Costech elemental
analyzer\u2014Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS) at the University of
California at Santa Cruz and the USGS Stable Isotope Lab to determine d15N
composition. Analytical uncertainty of0.16&is reported based on replicate
analysis of the international nitrogen standard, acetanilide.

Sampling for water at the primary seep site and in adjacent coastal waters was
conducted in September 2014 and March 2016. In 2014, sampling of the submarine
springs was conducted using a piezometer point directly inserted into the
primary seep site (Swarzenski et al., 2012) and a 12 V peristaltic pump during
both high and low tide (supporting information Table S1). At each sampling
site, the salinity and temperature of the seep water and bottom water was
recorded using calibrated YSI multiprobes. Seawater sampling in March 2016 was
conducted near the coral sites every 4 h over a 6 day period for nutrients and
carbonate chemistry variables. A peristaltic pump was used to pump seawater
from the seafloor and temperature and salinity were recorded using a
calibrated YSI multimeter. In situ temperatures were also recorded
fromSolonist CTD Divers installed at each sampling tube (Prouty et al., 2017).
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 655203
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1537338
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1537338 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Vulnerability of coral reefs to bioerosion
A. Cohen and N. Prouty, PIs
Version 27 June 2018
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2018-06-27T14:17:36Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-06-07T19:18:43Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.739309.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double -156.6931
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double 20.9451
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double 20.9373
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double -156.6931
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double -156.6935
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_max double 3.0
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_min double 1.0
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_positive String down
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_units String m
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/739309 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_acronym String CT Scanner
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description String The cores were passed through the Siemens Volume Zoom Spiral computed tomography (CT) scanner at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 739317
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String A CT scan makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String Computerized Tomography (CT) Scanner
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 707113
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_supplied_name String Siemens Volume Zoom Spiral computed tomography (CT) scanner
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String bco, bco-dmo, bioerosion, Bioerosion_rate, Bioerosion_volume, biological, calcification, Calcification_rate, chemical, core, Core_Length, data, dataset, date, delta, delta_N_15, delta_N_15_error, density, depth, dmo, erddap, error, growth, Growth_rate, latitude, length, lifespan, longitude, management, oceanography, office, preliminary, rate, sample, Sample_ID, thickness, time, tissue, Tissue_thickness, volume, water, Water_depth
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/739309/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/739309 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double 20.9451
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'739309': {'Latitude': 'flag - latitude', 'Water_depth': 'master - depth', 'Longitude': 'flag - longitude'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/739309/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String WHOI
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Anne L Cohen
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 51428
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String United States Geological Survey
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String USGS
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Nancy Prouty
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 739319
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String WHOI
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Anne L Cohen
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 51428
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String Contact
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_name String Hannah Ake
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_nid String 650173
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Coral climate effects
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Coral climate effects
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String Text from the NSF award abstract:
Human carbon dioxide emissions are causing measureable changes in ocean conditions. Many of these changes negatively affect coral reef ecosystems, reducing their ability to provide food, arable land, tourist destinations and coastline protection for hundreds of millions of people worldwide. This project focuses on the effects of enhanced stratification, caused by ocean warming, on the growth of reef-building corals across the Caribbean and Bermuda. Enhanced stratification impacts primary productivity which generates food for corals. Initial data generated by the investigators suggest that Atlantic coral growth has declined in the last 5 decades in response to these changes. A laboratory-based experiment is designed to test this hypothesis. If verified, the projected decline in Atlantic primary productivity through the 21st century could potentially rival and will certainly exacerbate the effects of warming and ocean acidification on coral reef ecosystems across the North Atlantic. Support is provided for graduate research, and undergraduate participation is facilitated through the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Summer Fellowship and the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences-Princeton Environmental Institute Summer Internship Programs. The results will be presented at national and international meetings and disseminated in a timely manner through peer-reviewed publications. All data produced through this program will be archived in the Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office.
Anthropogenic climate change has emerged as a principle threat to coral reef survival in the 21st century. In addition to ocean warming and acidification, global climate models project enhanced stratification of the upper oceans through the 21st century and a consequent decline in productivity, by up to 50%, in the North Atlantic. This project employs controlled laboratory manipulation experiments to test the link between productivity and growth of the dominant reef-building corals across the Caribbean and Bermuda. Preliminary data generated by the investigators, including multi-decade long coral growth histories and nitrogen isotope ratios of coral tissue and skeleton, suggest that coral growth across the region has declined over the past 50 years in response to productivity changes already underway. If the link between ocean circulation, productivity decline, and coral growth is verified, the projected 21st century decline in productivity could rival and will certainly exacerbate the effects of warming and ocean acidification on North Atlantic coral reef ecosystems.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2017-08
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Bermuda and wider Caribbean
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Collaborative Research: Identifying the Role of Basin-scale Climate Variability in the Decline of Atlantic Corals
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 655204
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2015-09
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double 20.9373
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Coral Growth Parameters Quantified by Computerized Tomography (CT) for Growth Rate (cm/yr), Density (g/cm3), and Calcification Rates (g/cm2/yr), Percent Volume Erosion (%), Measured Bioerosion Rate (mg/ cm2/ yr), Predicted Bioerosion Rate (mg/cm2/ yr) Based on DeCarlo et al (2015).
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Vulnerability of coral reefs to bioerosion from land-based sources of pollution using parameters quantified by computerized tomography.
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double -156.6935
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable Date   String  
attribute Date bcodmo_name String date
attribute Date description String Date of collection; yyyy-mm-dd
attribute Date long_name String Date
attribute Date nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/ (external link)
attribute Date source_name String Date
attribute Date time_precision String 1970-01-01
attribute Date units String unitless
variable latitude   double  
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute latitude actual_range double 20.9373, 20.9451
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude bcodmo_name String latitude
attribute latitude colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute latitude colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute latitude description String Latitude
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/ (external link)
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
variable longitude   double  
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute longitude actual_range double -156.6935, -156.6931
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude bcodmo_name String longitude
attribute longitude colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute longitude colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute longitude description String Logitude
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/ (external link)
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable Sample_ID   String  
attribute Sample_ID bcodmo_name String sample
attribute Sample_ID description String Sample ID number
attribute Sample_ID long_name String Sample ID
attribute Sample_ID nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/ACYC/ (external link)
attribute Sample_ID units String unitless
variable Core_Length   byte  
attribute Core_Length _FillValue byte 127
attribute Core_Length actual_range byte 18, 50
attribute Core_Length bcodmo_name String depth_core
attribute Core_Length description String Core length
attribute Core_Length long_name String Core Length
attribute Core_Length units String centimeters
variable depth   double  
attribute depth _CoordinateAxisType String Height
attribute depth _CoordinateZisPositive String down
attribute depth _FillValue double NaN
attribute depth actual_range double 1.0, 3.0
attribute depth axis String Z
attribute depth bcodmo_name String depth
attribute depth description String Water depth
attribute depth ioos_category String Location
attribute depth long_name String Water Depth
attribute depth nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/DEPH/ (external link)
attribute depth positive String down
attribute depth standard_name String depth
attribute depth units String m
variable Lifespan   byte  
attribute Lifespan _FillValue byte 127
attribute Lifespan actual_range byte 21, 43
attribute Lifespan bcodmo_name String age
attribute Lifespan description String Life span
attribute Lifespan long_name String Lifespan
attribute Lifespan units String years
variable Tissue_thickness   float  
attribute Tissue_thickness _FillValue float NaN
attribute Tissue_thickness actual_range float 4.0, 5.6
attribute Tissue_thickness bcodmo_name String width
attribute Tissue_thickness description String Tissue thickness
attribute Tissue_thickness long_name String Tissue Thickness
attribute Tissue_thickness units String milimeters
variable Growth_rate   float  
attribute Growth_rate _FillValue float NaN
attribute Growth_rate actual_range float 0.69, 1.17
attribute Growth_rate bcodmo_name String growth
attribute Growth_rate description String Growth rate
attribute Growth_rate long_name String Growth Rate
attribute Growth_rate units String centimeters per year
variable Density   float  
attribute Density _FillValue float NaN
attribute Density actual_range float 0.99, 1.15
attribute Density bcodmo_name String density
attribute Density description String Density
attribute Density long_name String Density
attribute Density units String grams per centimeters cubed
variable Bioerosion_volume   float  
attribute Bioerosion_volume _FillValue float NaN
attribute Bioerosion_volume actual_range float 2.2, 14.6
attribute Bioerosion_volume bcodmo_name String volume
attribute Bioerosion_volume description String Bioerosion volume
attribute Bioerosion_volume long_name String Bioerosion Volume
attribute Bioerosion_volume units String percent
variable Calcification_rate   float  
attribute Calcification_rate _FillValue float NaN
attribute Calcification_rate actual_range float 0.67, 1.1
attribute Calcification_rate bcodmo_name String calcification
attribute Calcification_rate description String Calcification rate
attribute Calcification_rate long_name String Calcification Rate
attribute Calcification_rate units String grams per square centimeter per year
variable Bioerosion_rate   float  
attribute Bioerosion_rate _FillValue float NaN
attribute Bioerosion_rate actual_range float 22.58, 99.15
attribute Bioerosion_rate bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute Bioerosion_rate description String Bioerosion rate
attribute Bioerosion_rate long_name String Bioerosion Rate
attribute Bioerosion_rate units String miligrams per square centimeter per year
variable delta_N_15   float  
attribute delta_N_15 _FillValue float NaN
attribute delta_N_15 actual_range float 7.5, 17.08
attribute delta_N_15 bcodmo_name String d15N_bio
attribute delta_N_15 description String Coral tissue nitrogen isotope
attribute delta_N_15 long_name String Delta N 15
attribute delta_N_15 nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/IRBO/ (external link)
attribute delta_N_15 units String per mil
variable delta_N_15_error   float  
attribute delta_N_15_error _FillValue float NaN
attribute delta_N_15_error actual_range float 0.12, 1.76
attribute delta_N_15_error bcodmo_name String d15N_bio
attribute delta_N_15_error colorBarMaximum double 50.0
attribute delta_N_15_error colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute delta_N_15_error description String Standard error for coral tissue nitrogen isotope
attribute delta_N_15_error long_name String Delta N 15 Error
attribute delta_N_15_error nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/IRBO/ (external link)
attribute delta_N_15_error units String per mil

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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