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Dataset Title:  Processed data from Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) observations of Tritia
trivittata and Tritia obsoleta behavior in various flow tanks
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Institution:  BCO-DMO   (Dataset ID: bcodmo_dataset_739790)
Information:  Summary ? | License ? | ISO 19115 | Metadata | Background (external link) | Data Access Form | Files
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Things You Can Do With Your Graphs

Well, you can do anything you want with your graphs, of course. But some things you might not have considered are:

The Dataset Attribute Structure (.das) for this Dataset

Attributes {
 s {
  file_name {
    String bcodmo_name "file_name";
    String description "Original name of csv file";
    String long_name "File Name";
    String units "unitless";
  larval_stage {
    String bcodmo_name "stage";
    String description "Larval stage: Precomp = precompetent larvae; Comp = competent larvae";
    String long_name "Larval Stage";
    String units "unitless";
  species {
    String bcodmo_name "species";
    String description "Name of species: T_trivittata = Tritia trivittata; T_obsoleta = Tritia obsoleta";
    String long_name "Species";
    String units "unitless";
  flow_tank {
    String bcodmo_name "tank";
    String description "Type of flow tank: turb = grid-stirred turbulence tank; couette = Couette device; rotate = rotating cylinder; accel = shaker flask";
    String long_name "Flow Tank";
    String units "unitless";
  direction {
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Direction (axis of rotation for Couette device and rotating cylinder, direction of oscillation for shaker flask): H = horizontal; V: vertical";
    String long_name "Direction";
    String units "unitless";
  x {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range -3.4289, 5.4732;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 180.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -180.0;
    String description "x";
    String long_name "Longitude";
    String source_name "x";
    String standard_name "longitude";
    String units "centimeters (cm)";
  z {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range -4.8273, 4.9581;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "y";
    String long_name "Z";
    String units "centimeters (cm)";
  uf {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range -26.29, 25.567;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "uf";
    String long_name "Uf";
    String units "centimeters per second (cm/s)";
  wf {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range -26.575, 25.111;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "wf";
    String long_name "WF";
    String units "centimeters per second (cm/s)";
  ub {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range -2.9249, 2.9718;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "ub";
    String long_name "Ub";
    String units "centimeters per second (cm/s)";
  wb {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range -2.9937, 2.9753;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "wb";
    String long_name "WB";
    String units "centimeters per second (cm/s)";
  larval_axial_rotation_ang {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range -1.3194, 1.2691;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Larval axial rotation angle";
    String long_name "Larval Axial Rotation Ang";
    String units "radians";
  larval_propulsive_force {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 1.4411e-11, 4.6773e-6;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Larval propulsive force magnitude";
    String long_name "Larval Propulsive Force";
    String units "N";
  propulsion_direction {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range -3.1415, 3.1415;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 360.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum 0.0;
    String description "Propulsion direction relative to larval axis";
    String long_name "Propulsion Direction";
    String units "radians";
  dissipation_rate {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 3.3069e-12, 0.014088;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Dissipation rate at larval location";
    String long_name "Dissipation Rate";
    String units "m^2 s^-3";
  horizontal_comp_of_vorticity {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range -55.591, 28.977;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "horizontal component of vorticity at larval location";
    String long_name "Horizontal Comp Of Vorticity";
    String units "s^-1";
  acceleration {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 4.7452e-6, 6.9628;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "acceleration at larval location";
    String long_name "Acceleration";
    String units "meters per second (m s^-2)";
  strain_rate {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range -16.646, 27.892;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "strain rate at larval location";
    String long_name "Strain Rate";
    String units "s^-1";
    String access_formats ".htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv";
    String acquisition_description 
"Larvae were observed in grid-stirred turbulence and in three devices producing
simpler flows dominated by strain, vorticity, or acceleration. The three
simpler flow devices were operated either vertically or horizontally. In each
device, multiple forcing frequencies were used so that larvae experienced a
broad range of physical signals with intensities representative of most ocean
In each device, larvae were gently added along with 105 cells mL-1 algae (~18
\\u03bcm preserved Thalassiosira weissflogii; Reed Mariculture) used as flow
tracers. Movements of larvae and flow were measured simultaneously using
2-dimensional (2D), infrared particle-image velocimetry (PIV). The PIV system
consisted of a 4 megapixel CCD camera (FlowSense, Dantec Dynamics) with a 100
mm lens (Tokina) and a pulsed diode laser (NanoPower 4W or 7W, 808 nm) with a
~2 mm beam width. Image sizes and locations varied among flow tanks (Fig. S1,
Fuchs et al. 2018). After an initial 10-20 min acclimation period, larvae were
observed in still water for 5 min, and then four or five flow treatments were
applied in random order with \\u226510 min of no oscillation between successive
treatments. Each treatment included a 10 min spin-up period for the flow to
become stationary (statistically invariant in time) followed by 5\\u201420 min
of recording.";
    String awards_0_award_nid "54930";
    String awards_0_award_number "OCE-1060622";
    String awards_0_data_url "http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1060622";
    String awards_0_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_0_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_0_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_0_program_manager "David L. Garrison";
    String awards_0_program_manager_nid "50534";
    String cdm_data_type "Other";
    String comment 
"Snail larvae in turbulence and waves 
   PIV observations of larval behavior in various flow tanks 
  PI: Heidi Fuchs (Rutgers) 
  Co-PIs: Gregory Gerbi (Skidmore), Elias Hunter (Rutgers), & Adam Christman (Rutgers) 
  Version date: 12-July-2018";
    String Conventions "COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3";
    String creator_email "info@bco-dmo.org";
    String creator_name "BCO-DMO";
    String creator_type "institution";
    String creator_url "https://www.bco-dmo.org/";
    String data_source "extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3  19 Dec 2019";
    String date_created "2018-07-12T16:32:51Z";
    String date_modified "2018-07-24T18:04:24Z";
    String defaultDataQuery "&time<now";
    String doi "10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.739873";
    String history 
"2022-08-16T16:22:46Z (local files)
2022-08-16T16:22:46Z https://erddap.bco-dmo.org/tabledap/bcodmo_dataset_739790.das";
    String infoUrl "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/739790";
    String institution "BCO-DMO";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description "Larval behavior and flow were observed simultaneously using near-infrared (IR) particle image velocimeter (IR PIV). The PIV system consisted of a 4 megapixel CCD camera (FlowSense, Dantec Dynamics) with a 100 mm lens (Tokina) and a pulsed diode laser (NanoPower 4W or 7W, 808 nm) with a ~2 mm beam width.";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid "739859";
    String instruments_0_description "Measures 2D velocity flow fields, usually by scanning particles with a laser beam and capturing images of the illuminated particles.";
    String instruments_0_instrument_name "Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system";
    String instruments_0_instrument_nid "730832";
    String instruments_0_supplied_name "near-infrared (IR) particle image velocimeter (IR PIV)";
    String keywords "acceleration, ang, axial, bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, comp, data, dataset, direction, dissipation, dissipation_rate, dmo, erddap, file, file_name, flow, flow_tank, force, horizontal, horizontal_comp_of_vorticity, larval, larval_axial_rotation_ang, larval_propulsive_force, larval_stage, longitude, management, name, oceanography, office, preliminary, propulsion, propulsion_direction, propulsive, rate, rotation, species, stage, strain, strain_rate, tank, vorticity";
    String license "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/739790/license";
    String metadata_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/739790";
    String param_mapping "{'739790': {}}";
    String parameter_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/739790/parameters";
    String people_0_affiliation "Rutgers University";
    String people_0_person_name "Heidi L. Fuchs";
    String people_0_person_nid "51324";
    String people_0_role "Principal Investigator";
    String people_0_role_type "originator";
    String people_1_affiliation "Rutgers University";
    String people_1_person_name "Adam J. Christman";
    String people_1_person_nid "739800";
    String people_1_role "Co-Principal Investigator";
    String people_1_role_type "originator";
    String people_2_affiliation "Skidmore College";
    String people_2_person_name "Gregory P. Gerbi";
    String people_2_person_nid "51326";
    String people_2_role "Co-Principal Investigator";
    String people_2_role_type "originator";
    String people_3_affiliation "Rutgers University";
    String people_3_person_name "Elias J. Hunter";
    String people_3_person_nid "739796";
    String people_3_role "Co-Principal Investigator";
    String people_3_role_type "originator";
    String people_4_affiliation "Rutgers University";
    String people_4_person_name "Heidi L. Fuchs";
    String people_4_person_nid "51324";
    String people_4_role "Contact";
    String people_4_role_type "related";
    String people_5_affiliation "Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution";
    String people_5_affiliation_acronym "WHOI BCO-DMO";
    String people_5_person_name "Shannon Rauch";
    String people_5_person_nid "51498";
    String people_5_role "BCO-DMO Data Manager";
    String people_5_role_type "related";
    String project "Turbulence and Larval Behavior";
    String projects_0_acronym "Turbulence and Larval Behavior";
    String projects_0_description 
"This study will investigate how snail larvae from distinct habitats respond to fluid mechanical cues in turbulence and surface gravity waves. Turbulence and waves are common features of coastal flows and may provide larvae with behavior cues that aid transport toward specific flow regimes or habitats. Turbulence induces some mollusk larvae to sink more frequently, but the detection mechanism and the response to waves are unknown. Larvae may sense spatial velocity gradients (strain rate and vorticity) or acceleration. Larvalscale flows are affected differently by turbulence and waves, because turbulence can generate larger strain rates and vorticity but waves can generate larger accelerations. Larvae that sense multiple flow characteristics may be able to distinguish between turbulence-dominated coastal embayments and wave-dominated regions of the continental shelf. In this study, larval behaviors will be quantified in several devices that generate steady strain rates and vorticity, simple acceleration, homogeneous turbulence, and complex flow with turbulence plus waves. Data will be used to develop stochastic models of larval behavior as a function of hydrodynamics and to test hypotheses about ecological and size-based controls on behavior.
The proposed research addresses several fundamental aspects of larval behavior and the ecological impacts of turbulence and waves:
Novel approaches for insights on behavioral signaling: Two-phase infrared particle-image velocimetry techniques will be applied in multiple flow tanks to study effects of both turbulence and waves at the larval scale. Statistical protocols will be developed for converting behavior observations into empirical models, laying the groundwork for careful integration of more complex behaviors with physical circulation models. Results will identify the key fluid characteristics affecting behavior in species from intertidal and shelf habitats.
Impact of waves on behavior: Many habitats are influenced or even dominated by waves, yet the potential for waves to provide a larval behavioral signal is unexplored. To our knowledge, this will be the first study of how larvae respond to the large accelerations present only in waves.
Role of behavior in dispersal: Benthic recruitment variability arises partly from vagaries of dispersal that result from larval responses to the physical environment. Turbulence and waves vary spatially and also temporally due to stratification, water depth, tides, and winds. Small-scale symptoms of turbulence and waves could elicit larval behaviors that contribute to differences in dispersal trajectories. This study will describe larval responses to hydromechanical cues that ultimately could explain considerable uncertainty in dispersal and recruitment.
Adaptation to physical environments: Shears and acceleration are potential behavior signals that could be enhanced or dampened by human impacts such as boating, shoreline modification, or increased storms. If behaviors are tuned to specific flow regimes, larvae may have difficulty adapting  to changing marine environments. This work will be instrumental in assessing the potential ecological impacts of changing physical processes on larval behavior and dispersal.
In addition to the data contributed to BCO-DMO, addtional data resources include:
1. Particle image velocimetry data: Metadata for digital image data will be archived on the project
web page hosted by Rutgers Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences. Image data will be made
available on request after publication of results. The Rutgers library system is implementing a data
archiving system, and project metadata will also be stored on that system when it becomes available.
2. Biological Data: Adult snails will be collected from the intertidal zone and from the continental
shelf offshore of Tuckerton, New Jersey. Shelf samples will be collected by beam trawling from the
R/V Arabella. Two 1-day cruises will be scheduled in 2012 or later. Snails will be cultured and used
for spawning stock to produce larvae. Type specimens of all snails collected will be preserved in
ethanol and stored at Rutgers. Metadata for snail collections will be posted on the project web page.";
    String projects_0_end_date "2016-03";
    String projects_0_geolocation "Coastal New Jersey";
    String projects_0_name "Relative Influence of Turbulence and Waves on Larval Behavior";
    String projects_0_project_nid "2146";
    String projects_0_project_website "https://marine.rutgers.edu/~hfuchs/Rutgers_site/Research/Entries/2010/12/17_Larval_responses_to_turbulence_and_waves.html";
    String projects_0_start_date "2011-04";
    String publisher_name "Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)";
    String publisher_type "institution";
    String sourceUrl "(local files)";
    String standard_name_vocabulary "CF Standard Name Table v55";
    String summary "Dispersing marine larvae can alter their physical transport by swimming vertically or sinking in response to environmental signals. However, it remains unknown whether any signals could enable larvae to navigate over large scales. We tested whether flow-induced larval behaviors vary with adults' physical environments using congeneric snail larvae from the wavy continental shelf (Tritia trivittata) and from turbulent inlets (Tritia obsoleta). This dataset includes observations of larvae in turbulence, in rotating flows dominated by vorticity or strain rates, and in rectilinear wave oscillations. Larval and water motion were observed using near-infrared particle image velocimetry (IR PIV), and analyses identified threshold signals causing larvae to change their direction or magnitude of propulsive force. The two species reacted similarly to turbulence but differently to waves, and their transport patterns would diverge in wavy, offshore regions. Wave-induced behaviors provide evidence that larvae may detect waves as both motions and sounds useful in navigation.";
    String title "Processed data from Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) observations of Tritia trivittata and Tritia obsoleta behavior in various flow tanks";
    String version "1";
    String xml_source "osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3";


Using tabledap to Request Data and Graphs from Tabular Datasets

tabledap lets you request a data subset, a graph, or a map from a tabular dataset (for example, buoy data), via a specially formed URL. tabledap uses the OPeNDAP (external link) Data Access Protocol (DAP) (external link) and its selection constraints (external link).

The URL specifies what you want: the dataset, a description of the graph or the subset of the data, and the file type for the response.

Tabledap request URLs must be in the form
For example,
Thus, the query is often a comma-separated list of desired variable names, followed by a collection of constraints (e.g., variable<value), each preceded by '&' (which is interpreted as "AND").

For details, see the tabledap Documentation.

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