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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Processed data from Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) observations of Tritia trivittata and
Tritia obsoleta behavior in various flow tanks
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Larvae were observed in grid-stirred turbulence and in three devices producing
simpler flows dominated by strain, vorticity, or acceleration. The three
simpler flow devices were operated either vertically or horizontally. In each
device, multiple forcing frequencies were used so that larvae experienced a
broad range of physical signals with intensities representative of most ocean

In each device, larvae were gently added along with 105 cells mL-1 algae (~18
\u03bcm preserved Thalassiosira weissflogii; Reed Mariculture) used as flow
tracers. Movements of larvae and flow were measured simultaneously using
2-dimensional (2D), infrared particle-image velocimetry (PIV). The PIV system
consisted of a 4 megapixel CCD camera (FlowSense, Dantec Dynamics) with a 100
mm lens (Tokina) and a pulsed diode laser (NanoPower 4W or 7W, 808 nm) with a
~2 mm beam width. Image sizes and locations varied among flow tanks (Fig. S1,
Fuchs et al. 2018). After an initial 10-20 min acclimation period, larvae were
observed in still water for 5 min, and then four or five flow treatments were
applied in random order with \u226510 min of no oscillation between successive
treatments. Each treatment included a 10 min spin-up period for the flow to
become stationary (statistically invariant in time) followed by 5\u201420 min
of recording.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 54930
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1060622
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1060622 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Snail larvae in turbulence and waves
PIV observations of larval behavior in various flow tanks
PI: Heidi Fuchs (Rutgers)
Co-PIs: Gregory Gerbi (Skidmore), Elias Hunter (Rutgers), & Adam Christman (Rutgers)
Version date: 12-July-2018
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2018-07-12T16:32:51Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2018-07-24T18:04:24Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.739873
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/739790 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description String Larval behavior and flow were observed simultaneously using near-infrared (IR) particle image velocimeter (IR PIV). The PIV system consisted of a 4 megapixel CCD camera (FlowSense, Dantec Dynamics) with a 100 mm lens (Tokina) and a pulsed diode laser (NanoPower 4W or 7W, 808 nm) with a ~2 mm beam width.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 739859
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String Measures 2D velocity flow fields, usually by scanning particles with a laser beam and capturing images of the illuminated particles.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 730832
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_supplied_name String near-infrared (IR) particle image velocimeter (IR PIV)
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String acceleration, ang, axial, bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, comp, data, dataset, direction, dissipation, dissipation_rate, dmo, erddap, file, file_name, flow, flow_tank, force, horizontal, horizontal_comp_of_vorticity, larval, larval_axial_rotation_ang, larval_propulsive_force, larval_stage, longitude, management, name, oceanography, office, preliminary, propulsion, propulsion_direction, propulsive, rate, rotation, species, stage, strain, strain_rate, tank, vorticity
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/739790/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/739790 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'739790': {}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/739790/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String Rutgers University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Heidi L. Fuchs
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 51324
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Rutgers University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Adam J. Christman
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 739800
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Skidmore College
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Gregory P. Gerbi
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 51326
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation String Rutgers University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_name String Elias J. Hunter
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_nid String 739796
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_affiliation String Rutgers University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_person_name String Heidi L. Fuchs
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_person_nid String 51324
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_role String Contact
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_5_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_5_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_5_person_name String Shannon Rauch
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_5_person_nid String 51498
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_5_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_5_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Turbulence and Larval Behavior
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Turbulence and Larval Behavior
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String This study will investigate how snail larvae from distinct habitats respond to fluid mechanical cues in turbulence and surface gravity waves. Turbulence and waves are common features of coastal flows and may provide larvae with behavior cues that aid transport toward specific flow regimes or habitats. Turbulence induces some mollusk larvae to sink more frequently, but the detection mechanism and the response to waves are unknown. Larvae may sense spatial velocity gradients (strain rate and vorticity) or acceleration. Larvalscale flows are affected differently by turbulence and waves, because turbulence can generate larger strain rates and vorticity but waves can generate larger accelerations. Larvae that sense multiple flow characteristics may be able to distinguish between turbulence-dominated coastal embayments and wave-dominated regions of the continental shelf. In this study, larval behaviors will be quantified in several devices that generate steady strain rates and vorticity, simple acceleration, homogeneous turbulence, and complex flow with turbulence plus waves. Data will be used to develop stochastic models of larval behavior as a function of hydrodynamics and to test hypotheses about ecological and size-based controls on behavior.
The proposed research addresses several fundamental aspects of larval behavior and the ecological impacts of turbulence and waves:
Novel approaches for insights on behavioral signaling: Two-phase infrared particle-image velocimetry techniques will be applied in multiple flow tanks to study effects of both turbulence and waves at the larval scale. Statistical protocols will be developed for converting behavior observations into empirical models, laying the groundwork for careful integration of more complex behaviors with physical circulation models. Results will identify the key fluid characteristics affecting behavior in species from intertidal and shelf habitats.
Impact of waves on behavior: Many habitats are influenced or even dominated by waves, yet the potential for waves to provide a larval behavioral signal is unexplored. To our knowledge, this will be the first study of how larvae respond to the large accelerations present only in waves.
Role of behavior in dispersal: Benthic recruitment variability arises partly from vagaries of dispersal that result from larval responses to the physical environment. Turbulence and waves vary spatially and also temporally due to stratification, water depth, tides, and winds. Small-scale symptoms of turbulence and waves could elicit larval behaviors that contribute to differences in dispersal trajectories. This study will describe larval responses to hydromechanical cues that ultimately could explain considerable uncertainty in dispersal and recruitment.
Adaptation to physical environments: Shears and acceleration are potential behavior signals that could be enhanced or dampened by human impacts such as boating, shoreline modification, or increased storms. If behaviors are tuned to specific flow regimes, larvae may have difficulty adapting  to changing marine environments. This work will be instrumental in assessing the potential ecological impacts of changing physical processes on larval behavior and dispersal.
In addition to the data contributed to BCO-DMO, addtional data resources include:
1. Particle image velocimetry data: Metadata for digital image data will be archived on the project
web page hosted by Rutgers Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences. Image data will be made
available on request after publication of results. The Rutgers library system is implementing a data
archiving system, and project metadata will also be stored on that system when it becomes available.
2. Biological Data: Adult snails will be collected from the intertidal zone and from the continental
shelf offshore of Tuckerton, New Jersey. Shelf samples will be collected by beam trawling from the
R/V Arabella. Two 1-day cruises will be scheduled in 2012 or later. Snails will be cultured and used
for spawning stock to produce larvae. Type specimens of all snails collected will be preserved in
ethanol and stored at Rutgers. Metadata for snail collections will be posted on the project web page.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2016-03
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Coastal New Jersey
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Relative Influence of Turbulence and Waves on Larval Behavior
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 2146
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_website String https://marine.rutgers.edu/~hfuchs/Rutgers_site/Research/Entries/2010/12/17_Larval_responses_to_turbulence_and_waves.html (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2011-04
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Dispersing marine larvae can alter their physical transport by swimming vertically or sinking in response to environmental signals. However, it remains unknown whether any signals could enable larvae to navigate over large scales. We tested whether flow-induced larval behaviors vary with adults' physical environments using congeneric snail larvae from the wavy continental shelf (Tritia trivittata) and from turbulent inlets (Tritia obsoleta). This dataset includes observations of larvae in turbulence, in rotating flows dominated by vorticity or strain rates, and in rectilinear wave oscillations. Larval and water motion were observed using near-infrared particle image velocimetry (IR PIV), and analyses identified threshold signals causing larvae to change their direction or magnitude of propulsive force. The two species reacted similarly to turbulence but differently to waves, and their transport patterns would diverge in wavy, offshore regions. Wave-induced behaviors provide evidence that larvae may detect waves as both motions and sounds useful in navigation.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Processed data from Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) observations of Tritia trivittata and Tritia obsoleta behavior in various flow tanks
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable file_name   String  
attribute file_name bcodmo_name String file_name
attribute file_name description String Original name of csv file
attribute file_name long_name String File Name
attribute file_name units String unitless
variable larval_stage   String  
attribute larval_stage bcodmo_name String stage
attribute larval_stage description String Larval stage: Precomp = precompetent larvae; Comp = competent larvae
attribute larval_stage long_name String Larval Stage
attribute larval_stage units String unitless
variable species   String  
attribute species bcodmo_name String species
attribute species description String Name of species: T_trivittata = Tritia trivittata; T_obsoleta = Tritia obsoleta
attribute species long_name String Species
attribute species units String unitless
variable flow_tank   String  
attribute flow_tank bcodmo_name String tank
attribute flow_tank description String Type of flow tank: turb = grid-stirred turbulence tank; couette = Couette device; rotate = rotating cylinder; accel = shaker flask
attribute flow_tank long_name String Flow Tank
attribute flow_tank units String unitless
variable direction   String  
attribute direction bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute direction description String Direction (axis of rotation for Couette device and rotating cylinder, direction of oscillation for shaker flask): H = horizontal; V: vertical
attribute direction long_name String Direction
attribute direction units String unitless
variable x   float  
attribute x _FillValue float NaN
attribute x actual_range float -3.4289, 5.4732
attribute x bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute x colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute x colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute x description String x
attribute x long_name String Longitude
attribute x source_name String x
attribute x standard_name String longitude
attribute x units String centimeters (cm)
variable z   float  
attribute z _FillValue float NaN
attribute z actual_range float -4.8273, 4.9581
attribute z bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute z description String y
attribute z long_name String Z
attribute z units String centimeters (cm)
variable uf   float  
attribute uf _FillValue float NaN
attribute uf actual_range float -26.29, 25.567
attribute uf bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute uf description String uf
attribute uf long_name String Uf
attribute uf units String centimeters per second (cm/s)
variable wf   float  
attribute wf _FillValue float NaN
attribute wf actual_range float -26.575, 25.111
attribute wf bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute wf description String wf
attribute wf long_name String WF
attribute wf units String centimeters per second (cm/s)
variable ub   float  
attribute ub _FillValue float NaN
attribute ub actual_range float -2.9249, 2.9718
attribute ub bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute ub description String ub
attribute ub long_name String Ub
attribute ub units String centimeters per second (cm/s)
variable wb   float  
attribute wb _FillValue float NaN
attribute wb actual_range float -2.9937, 2.9753
attribute wb bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute wb description String wb
attribute wb long_name String WB
attribute wb units String centimeters per second (cm/s)
variable larval_axial_rotation_ang   float  
attribute larval_axial_rotation_ang _FillValue float NaN
attribute larval_axial_rotation_ang actual_range float -1.3194, 1.2691
attribute larval_axial_rotation_ang bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute larval_axial_rotation_ang description String Larval axial rotation angle
attribute larval_axial_rotation_ang long_name String Larval Axial Rotation Ang
attribute larval_axial_rotation_ang units String radians
variable larval_propulsive_force   float  
attribute larval_propulsive_force _FillValue float NaN
attribute larval_propulsive_force actual_range float 1.4411E-11, 4.6773E-6
attribute larval_propulsive_force bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute larval_propulsive_force description String Larval propulsive force magnitude
attribute larval_propulsive_force long_name String Larval Propulsive Force
attribute larval_propulsive_force units String N
variable propulsion_direction   float  
attribute propulsion_direction _FillValue float NaN
attribute propulsion_direction actual_range float -3.1415, 3.1415
attribute propulsion_direction bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute propulsion_direction colorBarMaximum double 360.0
attribute propulsion_direction colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute propulsion_direction description String Propulsion direction relative to larval axis
attribute propulsion_direction long_name String Propulsion Direction
attribute propulsion_direction units String radians
variable dissipation_rate   float  
attribute dissipation_rate _FillValue float NaN
attribute dissipation_rate actual_range float 3.3069E-12, 0.014088
attribute dissipation_rate bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute dissipation_rate description String Dissipation rate at larval location
attribute dissipation_rate long_name String Dissipation Rate
attribute dissipation_rate units String m^2 s^-3
variable horizontal_comp_of_vorticity   float  
attribute horizontal_comp_of_vorticity _FillValue float NaN
attribute horizontal_comp_of_vorticity actual_range float -55.591, 28.977
attribute horizontal_comp_of_vorticity bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute horizontal_comp_of_vorticity description String horizontal component of vorticity at larval location
attribute horizontal_comp_of_vorticity long_name String Horizontal Comp Of Vorticity
attribute horizontal_comp_of_vorticity units String s^-1
variable acceleration   float  
attribute acceleration _FillValue float NaN
attribute acceleration actual_range float 4.7452E-6, 6.9628
attribute acceleration bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute acceleration description String acceleration at larval location
attribute acceleration long_name String Acceleration
attribute acceleration units String meters per second (m s^-2)
variable strain_rate   float  
attribute strain_rate _FillValue float NaN
attribute strain_rate actual_range float -16.646, 27.892
attribute strain_rate bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute strain_rate description String strain rate at larval location
attribute strain_rate long_name String Strain Rate
attribute strain_rate units String s^-1

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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