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Dataset Title:  Apparent Quantum Yields for the Photochemical Formation of Carbonyl Compounds
in Seawater from the R/V Endeavor EN589 in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from
September to October 2016.
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Institution:  BCO-DMO   (Dataset ID: bcodmo_dataset_781633)
Information:  Summary ? | License ? | ISO 19115 | Metadata | Background (external link) | Files | Make a graph
 
Variable ?   Optional
Constraint #1 ?
Optional
Constraint #2 ?
   Minimum ?
 
   Maximum ?
 
 Sample_Date (unitless) ?          "2016-09-17"    "2016-10-10"
 Station (unitless) ?          "BI"    "SS2"
 latitude (degrees_north) ?          35.0118    41.4013
  < slider >
 longitude (degrees_east) ?          -71.17943    -64.7045
  < slider >
 Cast_ID_YYJSG (unitless) ?          "16261GB2322"    "16284BI1323"
 depth (m) ?          5.0    5.8
  < slider >
 Temperature (Kelvin (K)) ?          273.15    313.15
 Wavelength (nanometer (nm)) ?          290    400
 Acetaldehyde (mole carbonyl photoproduced in seawater/mol photons absorbed by dissolved organic matter (mole/(mole quanta))) ?          1.2E-6    2.8E-4
 Glyoxal (mole carbonyl photoproduced in seawater/mol photons absorbed by dissolved organic matter (mole/(mole quanta))) ?          4.5E-7    3.3E-5
 Methylglyoxal (mole carbonyl photoproduced in seawater/mol photons absorbed by dissolved organic matter (mole/(mole quanta))) ?          1.1E-7    1.8E-5
 AQY_SetUp (unitless) ?          "Temperature depend..."    "Wavelength depende..."
 
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The Dataset Attribute Structure (.das) for this Dataset

Attributes {
 s {
  Sample_Date {
    String bcodmo_name "date";
    String description "Date of sample (UTC) in format YYYY-MM-DD";
    String long_name "Sample Date";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/";
    String source_name "Sample_Date";
    String time_precision "1970-01-01";
    String units "unitless";
  }
  Station {
    String bcodmo_name "station";
    String description "Station identifier";
    String long_name "Station";
    String units "unitless";
  }
  latitude {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Lat";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range 35.0118, 41.4013;
    String axis "Y";
    String bcodmo_name "latitude";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 90.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -90.0;
    String description "Latitude - South is negative";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Latitude";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/";
    String standard_name "latitude";
    String units "degrees_north";
  }
  longitude {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Lon";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range -71.17943, -64.7045;
    String axis "X";
    String bcodmo_name "longitude";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 180.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -180.0;
    String description "Longitude - West is negative";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Longitude";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/";
    String standard_name "longitude";
    String units "degrees_east";
  }
  Cast_ID_YYJSG {
    String bcodmo_name "cast";
    String description "CTD Cast ID with format: YY=Year=16 (2016); J=Julian Day; S=Station; G=GMT";
    String long_name "Cast ID YYJSG";
    String units "unitless";
  }
  depth {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Height";
    String _CoordinateZisPositive "down";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range 5.0, 5.8;
    String axis "Z";
    String bcodmo_name "depth";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 8000.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -8000.0;
    String colorBarPalette "TopographyDepth";
    String description "Depth below surface";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Depth";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/DEPH/";
    String positive "down";
    String standard_name "depth";
    String units "m";
  }
  Temperature {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 273.15, 313.15;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Temperature in Kelvin";
    String long_name "Temperature";
    String units "Kelvin (K)";
  }
  Wavelength {
    Int16 _FillValue 32767;
    Int16 actual_range 290, 400;
    String bcodmo_name "wavelength";
    String description "Wavelength";
    String long_name "Wavelength";
    String units "nanometer (nm)";
  }
  Acetaldehyde {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 1.2e-6, 2.8e-4;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Apparent quantum yields (AQY) for the photochemical production of acetaldehyde in seawater - Carbonyl Photoproduction Efficiency";
    String long_name "Acetaldehyde";
    String units "mole carbonyl photoproduced in seawater/mol photons absorbed by dissolved organic matter  (mole/(mole quanta))";
  }
  Glyoxal {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 4.5e-7, 3.3e-5;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Apparent quantum yields (AQY) for the photochemical production of glyoxal in seawater - Carbonyl Photoproduction Efficiency";
    String long_name "Glyoxal";
    String units "mole carbonyl photoproduced in seawater/mol photons absorbed by dissolved organic matter  (mole/(mole quanta))";
  }
  Methylglyoxal {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 1.1e-7, 1.8e-5;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Apparent quantum yields (AQY) for the photochemical production of methylglyoxal in seawater - Carbonyl Photoproduction Efficiency";
    String long_name "Methylglyoxal";
    String units "mole carbonyl photoproduced in seawater/mol photons absorbed by dissolved organic matter  (mole/(mole quanta))";
  }
  AQY_SetUp {
    String bcodmo_name "exp_type";
    String description "Wavelength or temperature dependent set-up";
    String long_name "AQY Set Up";
    String units "unitless";
  }
 }
  NC_GLOBAL {
    String access_formats ".htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson";
    String acquisition_description 
"Seawater sampling and Experimental Set up.\\u00a0 Seawater was gravity filtered
directly from the Niskin bottle through a 0.2-\\u03bcm POLYCAP 75 AS Nylon
filter (Whatman) into two 2 L Qorpak glass bottles previously rinsed by Milli
Q water and muffled at 550 \\u02daC for 8 h. Each bottle was filled leaving
3\\u20135 mL headspace, sealed with a Teflon-lined silicone screw cap, and
stored at 4 \\u00b0C in the dark until analyzed in Syracuse, NY. POLYCAP
filters were cleaned prior to use by alternating rinses of acetonitrile and
Milli Q water followed by extensive flushing with Milli Q. Prior to
irradiation experiments, a Milli Q sample or 0.2 \\u03bcm-filtered seawater
sample was pneumatically pushed through 1/8\\u201d O.D. Teflon tubing with
ultra-high purity helium (99.999%) into a rectangular quartz cell (4 mL
capacity, 1 cm pathlength, Spectrocell, Inc.) for at least 10 min at a flow
rate of 2 mL min-1. The quartz cell was periodically inverted to remove
residual air bubbles.\\u00a0 The quartz cell was sealed with a screw cap
containing a Teflon-lined silicone septum insert. Once the quartz cell was
filled with a sample, it was placed into an enclosed temperature-controlled
cell holder equipped with a stirrer.\\u00a0 All irradiations were performed
using a model QP-SX10001, 1000 W xenon lamp (Superior Quartz Products, Inc.)
along with a GM 252 monochromator (Spectral Energy, Corp.).\\u00a0 A 10 nm
bandwidth was used for irradiations <330 nm and a 20 nm bandwidth was used for
longer wavelengths.\\u00a0 A longpass filter with a 307 nm cutoff (50%
transmission at 307 nm) was placed in the optical path directly after the
monochromator for wavelengths >330 nm.\\u00a0 Irradiation times varied from 1
to 36 h and were chosen depending on the wavelength of the irradiation and the
absorbance of the seawater sample. Dark controls were incubated in the cell
holder for up to 36 h. Except when noted, the cell holder temperature was set
at 20 \\u00b0C for all irradiations.
 
Carbonyl Determination. A 2.2 mL aliquot of the irradiated seawater sample or
dark control was added to a 20 L aliquot of the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine
(DNPH) reagent in a ~2.2 mL Qorpak vial that was capped tightly with no
headspace.\\u00a0 The lid of the cap contained a Teflon-lined silicone
septum.\\u00a0 All samples were reacted at room temperature for a minimum of 12
h and a maximum of 48 h. Derivatized standards (Sigma-Aldrich), dark controls,
and samples were analyzed using a Shimadzu Prominence high performance liquid
chromatography (HPLC) system with a model SPD-20A/V UV-Vis absorbance detector
set in dual wavelength mode at 371 and 435 nm. The HPLC column consisted of a
Waters 8\\u00d7100 mm Nova-Pak cartridge with 4 \\u03bcm C18 packing placed in a
Waters RCM radial compression cartridge holder (Waters Associates, Milford,
MA). The mobile phase consisted of solvent A (Milli Q) and solvent B
(acetonitrile). The elution program was isocratic at 30% B for 3 min, 30 to
55% B in 5 min, isocratic at 55% B for 2 min, 55 to 90% B in 6 min, isocratic
at 90% B for 5 min, 90% B to 30% B in 1 min, followed by column equilibration
to the initial mobile phase composition for 15 min. All samples were injected
using a 1.25 mL injection loop. The flow rate was 1.5 mL min-1 and the column
oven temperature was 40 \\u02daC.\\u00a0 The sample analysis time was 37 min.
 
AQY method. AQY was calculated by dividing the moles of carbonyl compounds
produced by the moles of photons absorbed by seawater. Refer to Zhu & Kieber
(2018, 2019) for details regarding AQY determination, seawater absorptivity,
and photon flux of the monochromatic irradiation.";
    String awards_0_award_nid "708309";
    String awards_0_award_number "OCE-1536608";
    String awards_0_data_url "http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1536608";
    String awards_0_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_0_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_0_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_0_program_manager "Henrietta N Edmonds";
    String awards_0_program_manager_nid "51517";
    String awards_1_award_nid "708317";
    String awards_1_award_number "OCE-1536605";
    String awards_1_data_url "https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1536605";
    String awards_1_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_1_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_1_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_1_program_manager "Henrietta N Edmonds";
    String awards_1_program_manager_nid "51517";
    String awards_2_award_nid "708320";
    String awards_2_award_number "OCE-1536674";
    String awards_2_data_url "https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1536674";
    String awards_2_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_2_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_2_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_2_program_manager "Henrietta N Edmonds";
    String awards_2_program_manager_nid "51517";
    String awards_3_award_nid "708323";
    String awards_3_award_number "OCE-1536597";
    String awards_3_data_url "https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1536597";
    String awards_3_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_3_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_3_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_3_program_manager "Henrietta N Edmonds";
    String awards_3_program_manager_nid "51517";
    String cdm_data_type "Other";
    String comment 
"Apparent Quantum Yields 
  PI: David Kieber   
  Data Version 1: 2019-11-15";
    String Conventions "COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3";
    String creator_email "info@bco-dmo.org";
    String creator_name "BCO-DMO";
    String creator_type "institution";
    String creator_url "https://www.bco-dmo.org/";
    String data_source "extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3  19 Dec 2019";
    String date_created "2019-11-14T13:08:27Z";
    String date_modified "2019-11-22T11:15:03Z";
    String defaultDataQuery "&amp;time&lt;now";
    String doi "10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.781633.1";
    Float64 Easternmost_Easting -64.7045;
    Float64 geospatial_lat_max 41.4013;
    Float64 geospatial_lat_min 35.0118;
    String geospatial_lat_units "degrees_north";
    Float64 geospatial_lon_max -64.7045;
    Float64 geospatial_lon_min -71.17943;
    String geospatial_lon_units "degrees_east";
    Float64 geospatial_vertical_max 5.8;
    Float64 geospatial_vertical_min 5.0;
    String geospatial_vertical_positive "down";
    String geospatial_vertical_units "m";
    String history 
"2020-07-06T06:26:26Z (local files)
2020-07-06T06:26:26Z https://erddap.bco-dmo.org/erddap/tabledap/bcodmo_dataset_781633.html";
    String infoUrl "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/781633";
    String institution "BCO-DMO";
    String instruments_0_acronym "HPLC";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description "Shimadzu Prominence high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system with a model SPD-20A/V UV-Vis absorbance detector set in dual wavelength mode at 371 and 435 nm.";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid "781642";
    String instruments_0_description "A High-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) is a type of liquid chromatography used to separate compounds that are dissolved in solution. HPLC instruments consist of a reservoir of the mobile phase, a pump, an injector, a separation column, and a detector. Compounds are separated by high pressure pumping of the sample mixture onto a column packed with microspheres coated with the stationary phase. The different components in the mixture pass through the column at different rates due to differences in their partitioning behavior between the mobile liquid phase and the stationary phase.";
    String instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB11/";
    String instruments_0_instrument_name "High Performance Liquid Chromatograph";
    String instruments_0_instrument_nid "506";
    String instruments_0_supplied_name "Shimadzu Prominence high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system";
    String keywords "acetaldehyde, aqy, AQY_SetUp, bco, bco-dmo, biological, cast, Cast_ID_YYJSG, chemical, data, dataset, date, depth, Depth_Sample_Collected, dmo, erddap, glyoxal, latitude, longitude, management, methylglyoxal, oceanography, office, preliminary, sample, set, station, temperature, time, wavelength, yyjsg";
    String license "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/781633/license";
    String metadata_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/781633";
    Float64 Northernmost_Northing 41.4013;
    String param_mapping "{'781633': {'Latitude': 'flag - latitude', 'Depth_Sample_Collected': 'flag - depth', 'Longitude': 'flag - longitude'}}";
    String parameter_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/781633/parameters";
    String people_0_affiliation "State University of New York ESF";
    String people_0_affiliation_acronym "SUNY ESF";
    String people_0_person_name "David J. Kieber";
    String people_0_person_nid "544597";
    String people_0_role "Principal Investigator";
    String people_0_role_type "originator";
    String people_1_affiliation "State University of New York ESF";
    String people_1_affiliation_acronym "SUNY ESF";
    String people_1_person_name "Yuting Zhu";
    String people_1_person_nid "781645";
    String people_1_role "Contact";
    String people_1_role_type "related";
    String people_2_affiliation "Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution";
    String people_2_affiliation_acronym "WHOI BCO-DMO";
    String people_2_person_name "Karen Soenen";
    String people_2_person_nid "748773";
    String people_2_role "BCO-DMO Data Manager";
    String people_2_role_type "related";
    String project "Refractory DOC Recycling";
    String projects_0_acronym "Refractory DOC Recycling";
    String projects_0_description 
"The oceans hold a massive quantity of organic carbon that is greater than all terrestrial organic carbon biomass combined. Nearly all marine organic carbon is dissolved and more than 95% is refractory, and cycled through the oceans several times before complete removal. Refractory dissolved organic carbon (RDOC) concentrations are uniform with depth in the water column and represent the \"background\" carbon present throughout the oceans. However, very little is known regarding RDOC production and removal processes. One potential removal pathway is through adsorption of RDOC onto surfaces of rising bubbles produced by breaking waves and ejection via bubble bursting into the atmosphere. Building on prior research, the investigators will evaluate the importance of ocean- atmosphere processing in recycling marine RDOC during a research cruise in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Results of the research will provide important insights regarding the coupled ocean-atmosphere loss of RDOC, thereby improving understanding of and ability to predict the role of RDOC in oceanic and atmospheric biogeochemistry, the global carbon cycle, and Earth's climate. The research will involve three early career faculty, and will provide training for undergraduate and graduate researchers.
Recent results based on a limited set of observations indicate that the organic matter (OM) associated with primary marine aerosol (PMA) produced by bursting bubbles from breaking waves at the sea surface is comprised partly to wholly of RDOC rather than OM of recent biological origin as has been widely assumed. The injection of RDOC into the atmosphere in association with PMA and its subsequent photochemical oxidation is a potentially important and hitherto unrecognized sink for RDOC in the oceans of sufficient magnitude to close the marine carbon budget and help resolve a long-standing conundrum regarding removal mechanisms for marine RDOC. This project will involve a shipboard investigation and modeling study to (1) quantify the relative contributions of marine refractory dissolved organic carbon (RDOC) to primary marine aerosol organic matter (PMA OM) produced from near-surface seawater in biologically productive and oligotrophic regions and from North Atlantic Deep Water, and to (2) determine the importance of atmospheric photochemical processing as a recycling pathway for RDOC. To test these hypotheses, a high-capacity aerosol generator will be deployed at four hydrographic stations in the NW Atlantic Ocean to characterize (1) the natural abundance of 14C in PMA and in surface and deep seawater; (2) the surface tension and physical properties of bubble plumes; (3) size-resolved production fluxes, chemical composition, organic carbon enrichments, spectral absorbance, and photochemical evolution of PMA; and (4) the carbon content, optical properties, and physical properties of seawater. The importance of RDOC recycling via PMA production and photochemical evolution will be interpreted with model calculations.
EN589 Cruise Track";
    String projects_0_end_date "2018-12";
    String projects_0_geolocation "Northwest Atlantic Ocean";
    String projects_0_name "Collaborative Research: Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Recycling of Refractory Dissolved Organic Carbon in Seawater";
    String projects_0_project_nid "708310";
    String projects_0_start_date "2015-09";
    String publisher_name "Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)";
    String publisher_type "institution";
    String sourceUrl "(local files)";
    Float64 Southernmost_Northing 35.0118;
    String standard_name_vocabulary "CF Standard Name Table v55";
    String summary "Apparent Quantum Yields for the Photochemical Formation of Carbonyl Compounds in Seawater from the R/V Endeavor EN589 in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from September to October 2016.";
    String title "Apparent Quantum Yields for the Photochemical Formation of Carbonyl Compounds in Seawater from the R/V Endeavor EN589 in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from September to October 2016.";
    String version "1";
    Float64 Westernmost_Easting -71.17943;
    String xml_source "osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3";
  }
}

 

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