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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Apparent Quantum Yields for the Photochemical Formation of Carbonyl Compounds in Seawater
from the R/V Endeavor EN589 in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from September to October 2016.
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Seawater sampling and Experimental Set up.\u00a0 Seawater was gravity filtered
directly from the Niskin bottle through a 0.2-\u03bcm POLYCAP 75 AS Nylon
filter (Whatman) into two 2 L Qorpak glass bottles previously rinsed by Milli
Q water and muffled at 550 \u02daC for 8 h. Each bottle was filled leaving
3\u20135 mL headspace, sealed with a Teflon-lined silicone screw cap, and
stored at 4 \u00b0C in the dark until analyzed in Syracuse, NY. POLYCAP
filters were cleaned prior to use by alternating rinses of acetonitrile and
Milli Q water followed by extensive flushing with Milli Q. Prior to
irradiation experiments, a Milli Q sample or 0.2 \u03bcm-filtered seawater
sample was pneumatically pushed through 1/8\u201d O.D. Teflon tubing with
ultra-high purity helium (99.999%) into a rectangular quartz cell (4 mL
capacity, 1 cm pathlength, Spectrocell, Inc.) for at least 10 min at a flow
rate of 2 mL min-1. The quartz cell was periodically inverted to remove
residual air bubbles.\u00a0 The quartz cell was sealed with a screw cap
containing a Teflon-lined silicone septum insert. Once the quartz cell was
filled with a sample, it was placed into an enclosed temperature-controlled
cell holder equipped with a stirrer.\u00a0 All irradiations were performed
using a model QP-SX10001, 1000 W xenon lamp (Superior Quartz Products, Inc.)
along with a GM 252 monochromator (Spectral Energy, Corp.).\u00a0 A 10 nm
bandwidth was used for irradiations <330 nm and a 20 nm bandwidth was used for
longer wavelengths.\u00a0 A longpass filter with a 307 nm cutoff (50%
transmission at 307 nm) was placed in the optical path directly after the
monochromator for wavelengths >330 nm.\u00a0 Irradiation times varied from 1
to 36 h and were chosen depending on the wavelength of the irradiation and the
absorbance of the seawater sample. Dark controls were incubated in the cell
holder for up to 36 h. Except when noted, the cell holder temperature was set
at 20 \u00b0C for all irradiations.

Carbonyl Determination. A 2.2 mL aliquot of the irradiated seawater sample or
dark control was added to a 20 L aliquot of the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine
(DNPH) reagent in a ~2.2 mL Qorpak vial that was capped tightly with no
headspace.\u00a0 The lid of the cap contained a Teflon-lined silicone
septum.\u00a0 All samples were reacted at room temperature for a minimum of 12
h and a maximum of 48 h. Derivatized standards (Sigma-Aldrich), dark controls,
and samples were analyzed using a Shimadzu Prominence high performance liquid
chromatography (HPLC) system with a model SPD-20A/V UV-Vis absorbance detector
set in dual wavelength mode at 371 and 435 nm. The HPLC column consisted of a
Waters 8\u00d7100 mm Nova-Pak cartridge with 4 \u03bcm C18 packing placed in a
Waters RCM radial compression cartridge holder (Waters Associates, Milford,
MA). The mobile phase consisted of solvent A (Milli Q) and solvent B
(acetonitrile). The elution program was isocratic at 30% B for 3 min, 30 to
55% B in 5 min, isocratic at 55% B for 2 min, 55 to 90% B in 6 min, isocratic
at 90% B for 5 min, 90% B to 30% B in 1 min, followed by column equilibration
to the initial mobile phase composition for 15 min. All samples were injected
using a 1.25 mL injection loop. The flow rate was 1.5 mL min-1 and the column
oven temperature was 40 \u02daC.\u00a0 The sample analysis time was 37 min.

AQY method. AQY was calculated by dividing the moles of carbonyl compounds
produced by the moles of photons absorbed by seawater. Refer to Zhu & Kieber
(2018, 2019) for details regarding AQY determination, seawater absorptivity,
and photon flux of the monochromatic irradiation.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 708309
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1536608
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1536608 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String Henrietta N Edmonds
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 51517
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_award_nid String 708317
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_award_number String OCE-1536605
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_data_url String https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1536605 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_program_manager String Henrietta N Edmonds
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_program_manager_nid String 51517
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_award_nid String 708320
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_award_number String OCE-1536674
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_data_url String https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1536674 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_program_manager String Henrietta N Edmonds
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_program_manager_nid String 51517
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_award_nid String 708323
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_award_number String OCE-1536597
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_data_url String https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1536597 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_program_manager String Henrietta N Edmonds
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_program_manager_nid String 51517
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Apparent Quantum Yields
PI: David Kieber
Data Version 1: 2019-11-15
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2019-11-14T13:08:27Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-11-22T11:15:03Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &amp;time&lt;now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.781633.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double -64.7045
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double 41.4013
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double 35.0118
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double -64.7045
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double -71.17943
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_max double 5.8
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_min double 5.0
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_positive String down
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_units String m
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/781633 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_acronym String HPLC
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description String Shimadzu Prominence high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system with a model SPD-20A/V UV-Vis absorbance detector set in dual wavelength mode at 371 and 435 nm.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 781642
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String A High-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) is a type of liquid chromatography used to separate compounds that are dissolved in solution. HPLC instruments consist of a reservoir of the mobile phase, a pump, an injector, a separation column, and a detector. Compounds are separated by high pressure pumping of the sample mixture onto a column packed with microspheres coated with the stationary phase. The different components in the mixture pass through the column at different rates due to differences in their partitioning behavior between the mobile liquid phase and the stationary phase.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB11/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String High Performance Liquid Chromatograph
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 506
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_supplied_name String Shimadzu Prominence high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String acetaldehyde, aqy, AQY_SetUp, bco, bco-dmo, biological, cast, Cast_ID_YYJSG, chemical, data, dataset, date, depth, Depth_Sample_Collected, dmo, erddap, glyoxal, latitude, longitude, management, methylglyoxal, oceanography, office, preliminary, sample, set, station, temperature, time, wavelength, yyjsg
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/781633/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/781633 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double 41.4013
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'781633': {'Latitude': 'flag - latitude', 'Depth_Sample_Collected': 'flag - depth', 'Longitude': 'flag - longitude'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/781633/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String State University of New York ESF
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String SUNY ESF
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String David J. Kieber
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 544597
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String State University of New York ESF
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String SUNY ESF
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Yuting Zhu
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 781645
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Contact
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Karen Soenen
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 748773
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Refractory DOC Recycling
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Refractory DOC Recycling
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String The oceans hold a massive quantity of organic carbon that is greater than all terrestrial organic carbon biomass combined. Nearly all marine organic carbon is dissolved and more than 95% is refractory, and cycled through the oceans several times before complete removal. Refractory dissolved organic carbon (RDOC) concentrations are uniform with depth in the water column and represent the "background" carbon present throughout the oceans. However, very little is known regarding RDOC production and removal processes. One potential removal pathway is through adsorption of RDOC onto surfaces of rising bubbles produced by breaking waves and ejection via bubble bursting into the atmosphere. Building on prior research, the investigators will evaluate the importance of ocean- atmosphere processing in recycling marine RDOC during a research cruise in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Results of the research will provide important insights regarding the coupled ocean-atmosphere loss of RDOC, thereby improving understanding of and ability to predict the role of RDOC in oceanic and atmospheric biogeochemistry, the global carbon cycle, and Earth's climate. The research will involve three early career faculty, and will provide training for undergraduate and graduate researchers.
Recent results based on a limited set of observations indicate that the organic matter (OM) associated with primary marine aerosol (PMA) produced by bursting bubbles from breaking waves at the sea surface is comprised partly to wholly of RDOC rather than OM of recent biological origin as has been widely assumed. The injection of RDOC into the atmosphere in association with PMA and its subsequent photochemical oxidation is a potentially important and hitherto unrecognized sink for RDOC in the oceans of sufficient magnitude to close the marine carbon budget and help resolve a long-standing conundrum regarding removal mechanisms for marine RDOC. This project will involve a shipboard investigation and modeling study to (1) quantify the relative contributions of marine refractory dissolved organic carbon (RDOC) to primary marine aerosol organic matter (PMA OM) produced from near-surface seawater in biologically productive and oligotrophic regions and from North Atlantic Deep Water, and to (2) determine the importance of atmospheric photochemical processing as a recycling pathway for RDOC. To test these hypotheses, a high-capacity aerosol generator will be deployed at four hydrographic stations in the NW Atlantic Ocean to characterize (1) the natural abundance of 14C in PMA and in surface and deep seawater; (2) the surface tension and physical properties of bubble plumes; (3) size-resolved production fluxes, chemical composition, organic carbon enrichments, spectral absorbance, and photochemical evolution of PMA; and (4) the carbon content, optical properties, and physical properties of seawater. The importance of RDOC recycling via PMA production and photochemical evolution will be interpreted with model calculations.
EN589 Cruise Track
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2018-12
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Northwest Atlantic Ocean
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Collaborative Research: Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Recycling of Refractory Dissolved Organic Carbon in Seawater
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 708310
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2015-09
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double 35.0118
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Apparent Quantum Yields for the Photochemical Formation of Carbonyl Compounds in Seawater from the R/V Endeavor EN589 in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from September to October 2016.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Apparent Quantum Yields for the Photochemical Formation of Carbonyl Compounds in Seawater from the R/V Endeavor EN589 in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from September to October 2016.
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double -71.17943
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable Sample_Date   String  
attribute Sample_Date bcodmo_name String date
attribute Sample_Date description String Date of sample (UTC) in format YYYY-MM-DD
attribute Sample_Date long_name String Sample Date
attribute Sample_Date nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/ (external link)
attribute Sample_Date source_name String Sample_Date
attribute Sample_Date time_precision String 1970-01-01
attribute Sample_Date units String unitless
variable Station   String  
attribute Station bcodmo_name String station
attribute Station description String Station identifier
attribute Station long_name String Station
attribute Station units String unitless
variable latitude   double  
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute latitude actual_range double 35.0118, 41.4013
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude bcodmo_name String latitude
attribute latitude colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute latitude colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute latitude description String Latitude - South is negative
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/ (external link)
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
variable longitude   double  
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute longitude actual_range double -71.17943, -64.7045
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude bcodmo_name String longitude
attribute longitude colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute longitude colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute longitude description String Longitude - West is negative
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/ (external link)
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable Cast_ID_YYJSG   String  
attribute Cast_ID_YYJSG bcodmo_name String cast
attribute Cast_ID_YYJSG description String CTD Cast ID with format: YY=Year=16 (2016); J=Julian Day; S=Station; G=GMT
attribute Cast_ID_YYJSG long_name String Cast ID YYJSG
attribute Cast_ID_YYJSG units String unitless
variable depth   double  
attribute depth _CoordinateAxisType String Height
attribute depth _CoordinateZisPositive String down
attribute depth _FillValue double NaN
attribute depth actual_range double 5.0, 5.8
attribute depth axis String Z
attribute depth bcodmo_name String depth
attribute depth colorBarMaximum double 8000.0
attribute depth colorBarMinimum double -8000.0
attribute depth colorBarPalette String TopographyDepth
attribute depth description String Depth below surface
attribute depth ioos_category String Location
attribute depth long_name String Depth
attribute depth nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/DEPH/ (external link)
attribute depth positive String down
attribute depth standard_name String depth
attribute depth units String m
variable Temperature   float  
attribute Temperature _FillValue float NaN
attribute Temperature actual_range float 273.15, 313.15
attribute Temperature bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute Temperature description String Temperature in Kelvin
attribute Temperature long_name String Temperature
attribute Temperature units String Kelvin (K)
variable Wavelength   short  
attribute Wavelength _FillValue short 32767
attribute Wavelength actual_range short 290, 400
attribute Wavelength bcodmo_name String wavelength
attribute Wavelength description String Wavelength
attribute Wavelength long_name String Wavelength
attribute Wavelength units String nanometer (nm)
variable Acetaldehyde   float  
attribute Acetaldehyde _FillValue float NaN
attribute Acetaldehyde actual_range float 1.2E-6, 2.8E-4
attribute Acetaldehyde bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute Acetaldehyde description String Apparent quantum yields (AQY) for the photochemical production of acetaldehyde in seawater - Carbonyl Photoproduction Efficiency
attribute Acetaldehyde long_name String Acetaldehyde
attribute Acetaldehyde units String mole carbonyl photoproduced in seawater/mol photons absorbed by dissolved organic matter (mole/(mole quanta))
variable Glyoxal   float  
attribute Glyoxal _FillValue float NaN
attribute Glyoxal actual_range float 4.5E-7, 3.3E-5
attribute Glyoxal bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute Glyoxal description String Apparent quantum yields (AQY) for the photochemical production of glyoxal in seawater - Carbonyl Photoproduction Efficiency
attribute Glyoxal long_name String Glyoxal
attribute Glyoxal units String mole carbonyl photoproduced in seawater/mol photons absorbed by dissolved organic matter (mole/(mole quanta))
variable Methylglyoxal   float  
attribute Methylglyoxal _FillValue float NaN
attribute Methylglyoxal actual_range float 1.1E-7, 1.8E-5
attribute Methylglyoxal bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute Methylglyoxal description String Apparent quantum yields (AQY) for the photochemical production of methylglyoxal in seawater - Carbonyl Photoproduction Efficiency
attribute Methylglyoxal long_name String Methylglyoxal
attribute Methylglyoxal units String mole carbonyl photoproduced in seawater/mol photons absorbed by dissolved organic matter (mole/(mole quanta))
variable AQY_SetUp   String  
attribute AQY_SetUp bcodmo_name String exp_type
attribute AQY_SetUp description String Wavelength or temperature dependent set-up
attribute AQY_SetUp long_name String AQY Set Up
attribute AQY_SetUp units String unitless

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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