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Dataset Title:  Irradiance and estimated light attenuation coefficient, Kd, underwater and
onshore in Varadero Reef, 2017
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Institution:  BCO-DMO   (Dataset ID: bcodmo_dataset_786608)
Information:  Summary ? | License ? | ISO 19115 | Metadata | Background (external link) | Files | Make a graph
Variable ?   Optional
Constraint #1 ?
Constraint #2 ?
   Minimum ?
   Maximum ?
 Date (unitless) ?          "2017-08-12"    "2017-11-28"
 time2 (Time, unitless) ?          "06:59:59"    "17:00:00"
 DateTimeLocal (unitless) ?          "10/1/2017 10:09"    "9/30/2017 9:59"
 Irradiance_uw (micromol quanta meter^-2 second^-1) ?          0.11    406.76
 Irradiance_onshore (micromol quanta meter^-2 second^-1) ?          13.12    2093.96
 Kd_est (meter^-1) ?          0.34    2.15
 time (ISO Date Time UTC, UTC) ?          2017-08-12T12:00:00Z    2017-11-28T22:00:00Z
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The Dataset Attribute Structure (.das) for this Dataset

Attributes {
 s {
  Date {
    String bcodmo_name "date";
    String description "sampling date";
    String long_name "Date";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/";
    String time_precision "1970-01-01";
    String units "unitless";
  time2 {
    String bcodmo_name "time";
    String description "sampling time";
    String long_name "Time";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/AHMSAA01/";
    String units "unitless";
  DateTimeLocal {
    String bcodmo_name "ISO_DateTime_Local";
    String description "sampling date and time";
    String long_name "Date Time Local";
    String source_name "DateTimeLocal";
    String time_precision "1970-01-01T00:00Z";
    String units "unitless";
  Irradiance_uw {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.11, 406.76;
    String bcodmo_name "irradiance";
    String description "light intensity underwater";
    String long_name "Irradiance Uw";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/VSRW/";
    String units "micromol quanta meter^-2 second^-1";
  Irradiance_onshore {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 13.12, 2093.96;
    String bcodmo_name "irradiance";
    String description "light intensity onshore";
    String long_name "Irradiance Onshore";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/VSRW/";
    String units "micromol quanta meter^-2 second^-1";
  Kd_est {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.34, 2.15;
    String bcodmo_name "beam_cp";
    String description "estimated light attenuation coefficient Kd";
    String long_name "Kd Est";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ATTNZZ01/";
    String units "meter^-1";
  time {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Time";
    Float64 actual_range 1.5025392e+9, 1.5119064e+9;
    String axis "T";
    String bcodmo_name "ISO_DateTime_UTC";
    String description "date and time formatted is ISO: yyyy-mm-ddTHH:MM:SSZ";
    String ioos_category "Time";
    String long_name "ISO Date Time UTC";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/DTUT8601/";
    String standard_name "time";
    String time_origin "01-JAN-1970 00:00:00";
    String time_precision "1970-01-01T00:00:00Z";
    String units "seconds since 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z";
    String access_formats ".htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv";
    String acquisition_description 
"The Varadero Reef is located south-west of the Cartagena Bay close to the
southern strait that connects the Bay to the Caribbean Sea in Colombia
(10\\u00b018\\u201923.3\\\"N, 75\\u00b035\\u201908.0\\\"W). The Bay is a receiving
estuary from the Magdalena River through the Canal del Dique, a man-made
channel whose construction and operation dates back almost a century. The
depth of the particular transplant site in Varadero is 3.5m.
Irradiance was monitored for one year (November 2016 - November 2017) at
Varadero with cosine-corrected light sensors (Odyssey submersible PAR logger,
Dataflow systems, New Zealand), previously cross-calibrated against a
manufacturer-calibrated quantum sensor (LI-1400, LI-COR, USA). The light
sensors were cleaned and downloaded periodically (every two months or less) to
avoid biofouling. Data in which cumulative light signal loss was evident were
In order to estimate the variation of the optical properties of water
resulting from the Dique plume dynamics, light data recorded underwater were
compared with data simultaneously recorded by another sensor in a site onshore
close to Varadero (Fig. 5). With this array, we were able to isolate the
variations of irradiance associated with the plume from variations due to
cloud coverage. The irradiance synchronously recorded by onshore and
underwater loggers was used to estimate the variability of Kd based on the
Lambert-Beer\\u2019s law: Kd = ln (Ez / E0) / -Z,
where Ez is the irradiance recorded underwater, E0 is the irradiance recorded
onshore, and Z is the depth at which the underwater sensor was deployed in
Varadero (3.5 m). Only data recorded between 7:00 and 17:00 were employed.
Odyssey data logging software (Dataflow systems Ltd., Christchurch, New
Zealand) was used to manage the logger and data operations.
Problem report:\\u00a0There are some gaps associated with technical failure of
the devices.";
    String awards_0_award_nid "717027";
    String awards_0_award_number "OCE-1642311";
    String awards_0_data_url "http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1642311";
    String awards_0_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_0_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_0_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_0_program_manager "Michael E. Sieracki";
    String awards_0_program_manager_nid "50446";
    String cdm_data_type "Other";
    String comment 
"Irradiance and light attenuation, Aug-Nov 2017 
   Varadero Reef, Colombia 
   PI: M. Medina, R. Iglesias-Prieto, T. Lopez (Penn State) 
   version date: 2020-01-08";
    String Conventions "COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3";
    String creator_email "info@bco-dmo.org";
    String creator_name "BCO-DMO";
    String creator_type "institution";
    String creator_url "https://www.bco-dmo.org/";
    String data_source "extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3  19 Dec 2019";
    String date_created "2020-01-08T20:26:54Z";
    String date_modified "2020-03-04T21:32:11Z";
    String defaultDataQuery "&amp;time&lt;now";
    String doi "10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.786608.1";
    String history 
"2021-04-22T10:33:30Z (local files)
2021-04-22T10:33:30Z https://erddap.bco-dmo.org/erddap/tabledap/bcodmo_dataset_786608.html";
    String infoUrl "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/786608";
    String institution "BCO-DMO";
    String instruments_0_acronym "Light Meter";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description "Used to monitor the light intensity at each site.";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid "786615";
    String instruments_0_description "Light meters are instruments that measure light intensity. Common units of measure for light intensity are umol/m2/s or uE/m2/s (micromoles per meter squared per second or microEinsteins per meter squared per second). (example: LI-COR 250A)";
    String instruments_0_instrument_name "Light Meter";
    String instruments_0_instrument_nid "703";
    String instruments_0_supplied_name "Odyssey submersible PAR logger (Dataflow systems Ltda, Christchurch, New Zealand)";
    String instruments_1_dataset_instrument_description "Data logger connected to a quantum sensor was used to calibrate the Odyssey sensors";
    String instruments_1_dataset_instrument_nid "786616";
    String instruments_1_description "Electronic devices that record data over time or in relation to location either with a built-in instrument or sensor or via external instruments and sensors.";
    String instruments_1_instrument_name "Data Logger";
    String instruments_1_instrument_nid "731353";
    String instruments_1_supplied_name "LI-1400 (LI-COR, Nebraska, USA)";
    String keywords "bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, data, dataset, date, dmo, erddap, est, irradiance, Irradiance_onshore, Irradiance_uw, iso, ISO_DateTime_UTC, Kd_est, local, management, oceanography, office, onshore, preliminary, time, time2";
    String license "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/786608/license";
    String metadata_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/786608";
    String param_mapping "{'786608': {'ISO_DateTime_UTC': 'flag - time'}}";
    String parameter_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/786608/parameters";
    String people_0_affiliation "Pennsylvania State University";
    String people_0_affiliation_acronym "PSU";
    String people_0_person_name "Mónica Medina";
    String people_0_person_nid "472486";
    String people_0_role "Principal Investigator";
    String people_0_role_type "originator";
    String people_1_affiliation "Pennsylvania State University";
    String people_1_affiliation_acronym "PSU";
    String people_1_person_name "Roberto Iglesias-Prieto";
    String people_1_person_nid "717031";
    String people_1_role "Co-Principal Investigator";
    String people_1_role_type "originator";
    String people_2_affiliation "Pennsylvania State University";
    String people_2_affiliation_acronym "PSU";
    String people_2_person_name "Tomás Lopez Lodoño";
    String people_2_person_nid "732860";
    String people_2_role "Contact";
    String people_2_role_type "related";
    String people_3_affiliation "Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution";
    String people_3_affiliation_acronym "WHOI BCO-DMO";
    String people_3_person_name "Nancy Copley";
    String people_3_person_nid "50396";
    String people_3_role "BCO-DMO Data Manager";
    String people_3_role_type "related";
    String project "Varadero Reef";
    String projects_0_acronym "Varadero Reef";
    String projects_0_description 
"NSF Award Abstract:
Coral reefs provide invaluable services to coastal communities, but coral populations worldwide are in a state of unprecedented decline. Studying resilient reefs is of primary importance for coral conservation and restoration efforts. A unique natural experiment in coral resilience to stress has been playing out in Cartagena Bay, Colombia since the Spanish conquistadors diverted the Magadalena River into the Bay in 1582. Varadero Reef at the southern mouth of the Bay has survived centuries of environmental insults and changing conditions with up to 80% coral cover. This reef provides an ideal system to test biological robustness theory. Given that Varadero is a highly perturbed system, we hypothesize that while likely more robust to perturbation than nearby pristine reefs, it will be less physiologically efficient. Some of the large star coral colonies (Orbicella faveolata) at this site have existed since before the construction of the Canal del Dique. These coral specimens contain invaluable information regarding the conditions of the Magdalena River wathershed and its construction in the XIV century. Changes in turbidity of the plume associated with the urban industrial and agricultural development of Colombia can be documented as variations in calcification rates and changes in the microstructure of the skeleton. The Colombian government has announced the approval for the construction of a shipping channel that will go right over this reef, with the goal to start dredging as early as Fall 2016 or early 2017. The RAPID funding mechanism would enable immediate collection of data and information of why this reef has survived centuries of environmental stress that can shed light on what genotype combinations of coral and its microbial constituents will fare better in similar conditions at other reef locations around the world. Coral reef conservation biology will benefit from this study by generating data for the development of stress diagnostic tools to identify resilient corals. This project will help broaden participation in science by training a diverse cohort of students to work effectively in the global arena while fostering productive collaborations with several Colombian researchers and educational institutions. Students will also gain cultural empathy and sensitivity through direct engagement with the members of society who are most directly impacted by coral reef degradation (e.g. fishermen). Student researchers from Penn State University will work alongside their Colombian counterparts to develop a series of bilingual blog posts to record the cultural and scientific aspects of this project's research expeditions. The blog postings will be submitted for wide dissemination to the Smithsonian's Ocean Portal where Penn State students have published in the past. An educational coral kit developed by the Medina Lab and extensively tested in schools in the US has been translated into Spanish and will be used in local schools in Cartagena and vicinities. All expedition data and metadata will be incorporated into the Global Coral Microbiome Project's interactive web portal, a responsive outreach tool allows researchers, students and/or teachers to access a wealth of information about every coral colony we sample and to virtually explore coral reefs around the world from any internet-enabled device.
This research will generate information to understand functional traits related to symbioses stability under different perturbation regimes. Comparative analyses of microbiome modifications generated during the reciprocal transplantation will allow us to document possible differential responses of the holobionts to acute and chronic stressors relative to corals not exposed to significant levels of perturbation. The development of local bio-optical models of coral calcification and the characterization of the coral holobiont will permit the distinction between the effects in calcification attributed to local turbidity from those that can be ;attributed to differences in host genotype and/or microbial community composition and function. The information recorded in coral skeletons can be used to reconstruct the rates of agricultural, industrial and urban development of Colombia through the last 5 centuries as changes in the turbidity of the effluent of the Magdalena River.";
    String projects_0_end_date "2018-06";
    String projects_0_geolocation "Caribbean Sea (10°18’10”N, 75°34’ 55”W)";
    String projects_0_name "RAPID: Coral robustness: lessons from an \"improbable\" reef";
    String projects_0_project_nid "717028";
    String projects_0_start_date "2016-07";
    String publisher_name "Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)";
    String publisher_type "institution";
    String sourceUrl "(local files)";
    String standard_name_vocabulary "CF Standard Name Table v55";
    String summary "This dataset contains the primary data of irradiance recorded underwater and onshore and the estimated light attenuation coefficient, Kd, based on these data in Varadero Reef. The irradiance recorded synchronously onshore and underwater were used to estimate the variability of the light attenuation coefficient (Kd) resulting from temporal variation of the optical properties of water.";
    String time_coverage_end "2017-11-28T22:00:00Z";
    String time_coverage_start "2017-08-12T12:00:00Z";
    String title "Irradiance and estimated light attenuation coefficient, Kd, underwater and onshore in Varadero Reef, 2017";
    String version "1";
    String xml_source "osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3";


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