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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Irradiance and estimated light attenuation coefficient, Kd, underwater and onshore in
Varadero Reef, 2017
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String The Varadero Reef is located south-west of the Cartagena Bay close to the
southern strait that connects the Bay to the Caribbean Sea in Colombia
(10\u00b018\u201923.3\"N, 75\u00b035\u201908.0\"W). The Bay is a receiving
estuary from the Magdalena River through the Canal del Dique, a man-made
channel whose construction and operation dates back almost a century. The
depth of the particular transplant site in Varadero is 3.5m.

Irradiance was monitored for one year (November 2016 - November 2017) at
Varadero with cosine-corrected light sensors (Odyssey submersible PAR logger,
Dataflow systems, New Zealand), previously cross-calibrated against a
manufacturer-calibrated quantum sensor (LI-1400, LI-COR, USA). The light
sensors were cleaned and downloaded periodically (every two months or less) to
avoid biofouling. Data in which cumulative light signal loss was evident were

In order to estimate the variation of the optical properties of water
resulting from the Dique plume dynamics, light data recorded underwater were
compared with data simultaneously recorded by another sensor in a site onshore
close to Varadero (Fig. 5). With this array, we were able to isolate the
variations of irradiance associated with the plume from variations due to
cloud coverage. The irradiance synchronously recorded by onshore and
underwater loggers was used to estimate the variability of Kd based on the
Lambert-Beer\u2019s law: Kd = ln (Ez / E0) / -Z,

where Ez is the irradiance recorded underwater, E0 is the irradiance recorded
onshore, and Z is the depth at which the underwater sensor was deployed in
Varadero (3.5 m). Only data recorded between 7:00 and 17:00 were employed.

Odyssey data logging software (Dataflow systems Ltd., Christchurch, New
Zealand) was used to manage the logger and data operations.

Problem report:\u00a0There are some gaps associated with technical failure of
the devices.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 717027
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1642311
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1642311 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String Michael E. Sieracki
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50446
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Irradiance and light attenuation, Aug-Nov 2017
Varadero Reef, Colombia
PI: M. Medina, R. Iglesias-Prieto, T. Lopez (Penn State)
version date: 2020-01-08
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2020-01-08T20:26:54Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2020-03-04T21:32:11Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.786608.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/786608 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_acronym String Light Meter
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description String Used to monitor the light intensity at each site.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 786615
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String Light meters are instruments that measure light intensity. Common units of measure for light intensity are umol/m2/s or uE/m2/s (micromoles per meter squared per second or microEinsteins per meter squared per second). (example: LI-COR 250A)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String Light Meter
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 703
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_supplied_name String Odyssey submersible PAR logger (Dataflow systems Ltda, Christchurch, New Zealand)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_dataset_instrument_description String Data logger connected to a quantum sensor was used to calibrate the Odyssey sensors
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_dataset_instrument_nid String 786616
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_description String Electronic devices that record data over time or in relation to location either with a built-in instrument or sensor or via external instruments and sensors.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_name String Data Logger
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_nid String 731353
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_supplied_name String LI-1400 (LI-COR, Nebraska, USA)
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, data, dataset, date, dmo, erddap, est, irradiance, Irradiance_onshore, Irradiance_uw, iso, ISO_DateTime_UTC, Kd_est, local, management, oceanography, office, onshore, preliminary, time, time2
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/786608/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/786608 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'786608': {'ISO_DateTime_UTC': 'flag - time'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/786608/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String Pennsylvania State University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String PSU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Mónica Medina
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 472486
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Pennsylvania State University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String PSU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Roberto Iglesias-Prieto
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 717031
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Pennsylvania State University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String PSU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Tomás Lopez Lodoño
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 732860
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String Contact
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_name String Nancy Copley
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_nid String 50396
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Varadero Reef
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Varadero Reef
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String NSF Award Abstract:
Coral reefs provide invaluable services to coastal communities, but coral populations worldwide are in a state of unprecedented decline. Studying resilient reefs is of primary importance for coral conservation and restoration efforts. A unique natural experiment in coral resilience to stress has been playing out in Cartagena Bay, Colombia since the Spanish conquistadors diverted the Magadalena River into the Bay in 1582. Varadero Reef at the southern mouth of the Bay has survived centuries of environmental insults and changing conditions with up to 80% coral cover. This reef provides an ideal system to test biological robustness theory. Given that Varadero is a highly perturbed system, we hypothesize that while likely more robust to perturbation than nearby pristine reefs, it will be less physiologically efficient. Some of the large star coral colonies (Orbicella faveolata) at this site have existed since before the construction of the Canal del Dique. These coral specimens contain invaluable information regarding the conditions of the Magdalena River wathershed and its construction in the XIV century. Changes in turbidity of the plume associated with the urban industrial and agricultural development of Colombia can be documented as variations in calcification rates and changes in the microstructure of the skeleton. The Colombian government has announced the approval for the construction of a shipping channel that will go right over this reef, with the goal to start dredging as early as Fall 2016 or early 2017. The RAPID funding mechanism would enable immediate collection of data and information of why this reef has survived centuries of environmental stress that can shed light on what genotype combinations of coral and its microbial constituents will fare better in similar conditions at other reef locations around the world. Coral reef conservation biology will benefit from this study by generating data for the development of stress diagnostic tools to identify resilient corals. This project will help broaden participation in science by training a diverse cohort of students to work effectively in the global arena while fostering productive collaborations with several Colombian researchers and educational institutions. Students will also gain cultural empathy and sensitivity through direct engagement with the members of society who are most directly impacted by coral reef degradation (e.g. fishermen). Student researchers from Penn State University will work alongside their Colombian counterparts to develop a series of bilingual blog posts to record the cultural and scientific aspects of this project's research expeditions. The blog postings will be submitted for wide dissemination to the Smithsonian's Ocean Portal where Penn State students have published in the past. An educational coral kit developed by the Medina Lab and extensively tested in schools in the US has been translated into Spanish and will be used in local schools in Cartagena and vicinities. All expedition data and metadata will be incorporated into the Global Coral Microbiome Project's interactive web portal, a responsive outreach tool allows researchers, students and/or teachers to access a wealth of information about every coral colony we sample and to virtually explore coral reefs around the world from any internet-enabled device.
This research will generate information to understand functional traits related to symbioses stability under different perturbation regimes. Comparative analyses of microbiome modifications generated during the reciprocal transplantation will allow us to document possible differential responses of the holobionts to acute and chronic stressors relative to corals not exposed to significant levels of perturbation. The development of local bio-optical models of coral calcification and the characterization of the coral holobiont will permit the distinction between the effects in calcification attributed to local turbidity from those that can be ;attributed to differences in host genotype and/or microbial community composition and function. The information recorded in coral skeletons can be used to reconstruct the rates of agricultural, industrial and urban development of Colombia through the last 5 centuries as changes in the turbidity of the effluent of the Magdalena River.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2018-06
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Caribbean Sea (10°18’10”N, 75°34’ 55”W)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String RAPID: Coral robustness: lessons from an "improbable" reef
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 717028
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2016-07
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String This dataset contains the primary data of irradiance recorded underwater and onshore and the estimated light attenuation coefficient, Kd, based on these data in Varadero Reef. The irradiance recorded synchronously onshore and underwater were used to estimate the variability of the light attenuation coefficient (Kd) resulting from temporal variation of the optical properties of water.
attribute NC_GLOBAL time_coverage_end String 2017-11-28T22:00:00Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL time_coverage_start String 2017-08-12T12:00:00Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Irradiance and estimated light attenuation coefficient, Kd, underwater and onshore in Varadero Reef, 2017
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable Date   String  
attribute Date bcodmo_name String date
attribute Date description String sampling date
attribute Date long_name String Date
attribute Date nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/ (external link)
attribute Date time_precision String 1970-01-01
attribute Date units String unitless
variable time2   String  
attribute time2 bcodmo_name String time
attribute time2 description String sampling time
attribute time2 long_name String Time
attribute time2 nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/AHMSAA01/ (external link)
attribute time2 units String unitless
variable DateTimeLocal   String  
attribute DateTimeLocal bcodmo_name String ISO_DateTime_Local
attribute DateTimeLocal description String sampling date and time
attribute DateTimeLocal long_name String Date Time Local
attribute DateTimeLocal source_name String DateTimeLocal
attribute DateTimeLocal time_precision String 1970-01-01T00:00Z
attribute DateTimeLocal units String unitless
variable Irradiance_uw   float  
attribute Irradiance_uw _FillValue float NaN
attribute Irradiance_uw actual_range float 0.11, 406.76
attribute Irradiance_uw bcodmo_name String irradiance
attribute Irradiance_uw description String light intensity underwater
attribute Irradiance_uw long_name String Irradiance Uw
attribute Irradiance_uw nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/VSRW/ (external link)
attribute Irradiance_uw units String micromol quanta meter^-2 second^-1
variable Irradiance_onshore   float  
attribute Irradiance_onshore _FillValue float NaN
attribute Irradiance_onshore actual_range float 13.12, 2093.96
attribute Irradiance_onshore bcodmo_name String irradiance
attribute Irradiance_onshore description String light intensity onshore
attribute Irradiance_onshore long_name String Irradiance Onshore
attribute Irradiance_onshore nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/VSRW/ (external link)
attribute Irradiance_onshore units String micromol quanta meter^-2 second^-1
variable Kd_est   float  
attribute Kd_est _FillValue float NaN
attribute Kd_est actual_range float 0.34, 2.15
attribute Kd_est bcodmo_name String beam_cp
attribute Kd_est description String estimated light attenuation coefficient Kd
attribute Kd_est long_name String Kd Est
attribute Kd_est nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ATTNZZ01/ (external link)
attribute Kd_est units String meter^-1
variable time   double  
attribute time _CoordinateAxisType String Time
attribute time actual_range double 1.5025392E9, 1.5119064E9
attribute time axis String T
attribute time bcodmo_name String ISO_DateTime_UTC
attribute time description String date and time formatted is ISO: yyyy-mm-ddTHH:MM:SSZ
attribute time ioos_category String Time
attribute time long_name String ISO Date Time UTC
attribute time nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/DTUT8601/ (external link)
attribute time standard_name String time
attribute time time_origin String 01-JAN-1970 00:00:00
attribute time time_precision String 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z
attribute time units String seconds since 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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