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Dataset Title:  Mercury stable isotope values for zooplankton collected during R/V Kilo Moana
cruises KM1418 and KM1506 around Station ALOHA in 2014 and 2015
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Institution:  BCO-DMO   (Dataset ID: bcodmo_dataset_788512)
Information:  Summary ? | License ? | ISO 19115 | Metadata | Background (external link) | Files | Make a graph
Variable ?   Optional
Constraint #1 ?
Constraint #2 ?
   Minimum ?
   Maximum ?
 Cruise_Number (unitless) ?          "KM1418"    "KM1506"
 Date (unitless) ?          20140902    20150502
 Day_or_Night (unitless) ?          "Day"    "Night"
 Day_Zooplankton_ID (unitless) ?          "T1N2-8S0.2 2.16ppb"    "T8+9N9S5 3.08ppb"
 depth (Mean Depth, m) ?          25.0    1250.0
  < slider >
 Size_fraction (millimeters (mm)) ?          "0.2"    ">5.0"
 d202Hg (per mil (‰)) ?          -0.52    0.28
 D199Hg (per mil (‰)) ?          -0.26    0.04
 D201Hg (per mil (‰)) ?          0.07    2.39
 D200Hg (per mil (‰)) ?          -0.11    0.26
 D204Hg (per mil (‰)) ?          0.24    2.78
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The Dataset Attribute Structure (.das) for this Dataset

Attributes {
 s {
  Cruise_Number {
    String bcodmo_name "cruise_id";
    String description "Cruise ID number";
    String long_name "Cruise Number";
    String units "unitless";
  Date {
    Int32 _FillValue 2147483647;
    Int32 actual_range 20140902, 20150502;
    String bcodmo_name "date";
    String description "Sampling date (UTC); format: yyyymmdd";
    String long_name "Date";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/";
    String units "unitless";
  Day_or_Night {
    String bcodmo_name "time_of_day";
    String description "Time of day when sampling occurred";
    String long_name "Day Or Night";
    String units "unitless";
  Day_Zooplankton_ID {
    String bcodmo_name "sample";
    String description "Sample ID";
    String long_name "Day Zooplankton ID";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/ACYC/";
    String units "unitless";
  depth {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Height";
    String _CoordinateZisPositive "down";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range 25.0, 1250.0;
    String axis "Z";
    String bcodmo_name "depth";
    String description "Mean depth of sample";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Mean Depth";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/DEPH/";
    String positive "down";
    String standard_name "depth";
    String units "m";
  Size_fraction {
    String bcodmo_name "samp_fraction";
    String description "Size fraction";
    String long_name "Size Fraction";
    String units "millimeters (mm)";
  d202Hg {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range -0.52, 0.28;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Stable isotope ratio; δ202Hg";
    String long_name "D202 HG";
    String units "per mil (‰)";
  D199Hg {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range -0.26, 0.04;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Stable isotope ratio; Δ199Hg";
    String long_name "D199 HG";
    String units "per mil (‰)";
  D201Hg {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.07, 2.39;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Stable isotope ratio; Δ201Hg";
    String long_name "D201 HG";
    String units "per mil (‰)";
  D200Hg {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range -0.11, 0.26;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Stable isotope ratio; Δ200Hg";
    String long_name "D200 HG";
    String units "per mil (‰)";
  D204Hg {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.24, 2.78;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Stable isotope ratio; Δ204Hg";
    String long_name "D204 HG";
    String units "per mil (‰)";
    String access_formats ".htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv";
    String acquisition_description 
"Zooplankton was collected using a multiple opening-closing net and
environmental sensing system (MOCNESS); cod ends were fitted with a 200 micron
mesh. Onboard, zooplankton were wet-sieved in filter seawater using different
size mesh sieves and frozen at -20 (Degree-Celsius).
The zooplankton was collected at Station ALOHA during the KM1418 and KM1506
research cruises. In the summer cruise, each tow collected material from 9
depth intervals spanning the ocean surface to 1500 m (0-50 m, 50-100 m,
100-150 m, 150-200 m, 200-300 m, 300-500 m, 500-700 m, 700-1000 m, 1000-1500
m). In the spring, four separate net tows were conducted to collected
additional samples from a single depth interval (500-700 m). This was done to
provide enough sample material.
For total Hg (THg) determination about 10 mg of zooplankton was digested in
reverse aqua regis overnight. For THg isotope determination zooplankton
samples were combusted in a two-stage combustion furnace and Hg(0) g was
trapped in a 1% KMnO4 solution. The 1% KMnO4 solution was analyzed for Hg
stable isotope composition using a multiple collector inductively coupled
plasma mass spectrometer.
All the methods are detailed in Motta et al., (2019).";
    String awards_0_award_nid "560590";
    String awards_0_award_number "OCE-1433846";
    String awards_0_data_url "http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1433846";
    String awards_0_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_0_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_0_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_0_program_manager "Donald L. Rice";
    String awards_0_program_manager_nid "51467";
    String cdm_data_type "Other";
    String comment 
"Mercury stable isotope values for zooplankton 
  PI: Joel D. Blum (University of Michigan) 
  Co-PIs: Brian N. Popp, Kanesa Seraphin, Jeffrey C. Drazen (University of Hawaii), & Claudia Benitez-Nelson (University of South Carolina) 
  Version date: 21-Feb-2020";
    String Conventions "COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3";
    String creator_email "info@bco-dmo.org";
    String creator_name "BCO-DMO";
    String creator_type "institution";
    String creator_url "https://www.bco-dmo.org/";
    String data_source "extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3  19 Dec 2019";
    String date_created "2020-01-27T19:41:06Z";
    String date_modified "2020-02-24T15:37:11Z";
    String defaultDataQuery "&amp;time&lt;now";
    String doi "10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.788512.1";
    Float64 geospatial_vertical_max 1250.0;
    Float64 geospatial_vertical_min 25.0;
    String geospatial_vertical_positive "down";
    String geospatial_vertical_units "m";
    String history 
"2022-08-12T23:20:22Z (local files)
2022-08-12T23:20:22Z https://erddap.bco-dmo.org/erddap/tabledap/bcodmo_dataset_788512.html";
    String infoUrl "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/788512";
    String institution "BCO-DMO";
    String instruments_0_acronym "MOCNESS";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description "Zooplankton was collected using a multiple opening-closing net and environmental sensing system (MOCNESS). The cod ends were fitted with a 200 micron mesh.";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid "788567";
    String instruments_0_description "The Multiple Opening/Closing Net and Environmental Sensing System or MOCNESS is a family of net systems based on the Tucker Trawl principle. There are currently 8 different sizes of MOCNESS in existence which are designed for capture of different size ranges of zooplankton and micro-nekton  Each system is designated according to the size of the net mouth opening and in two cases, the number of nets it carries. The original MOCNESS (Wiebe et al, 1976) was a redesigned and improved version of a system described by Frost and McCrone (1974).(from MOCNESS manual)  This designation is used when the specific type of MOCNESS (number and size of nets) was not specified by the contributing investigator.";
    String instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L22/current/NETT0097/";
    String instruments_0_instrument_name "MOCNESS";
    String instruments_0_instrument_nid "511";
    String instruments_1_acronym "ICP Mass Spec";
    String instruments_1_dataset_instrument_description "multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS; Nu instruments)";
    String instruments_1_dataset_instrument_nid "788566";
    String instruments_1_description "An ICP Mass Spec is an instrument that passes nebulized samples into an inductively-coupled gas plasma (8-10000 K) where they are atomized and ionized. Ions of specific mass-to-charge ratios are quantified in a quadrupole mass spectrometer.";
    String instruments_1_instrument_external_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB15/";
    String instruments_1_instrument_name "Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer";
    String instruments_1_instrument_nid "530";
    String instruments_1_supplied_name "MC-ICP-MS";
    String keywords "bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, cruise, Cruise_Number, d199, D199Hg, d200, D200Hg, d201, D201Hg, d202, d202Hg, d204, D204Hg, data, dataset, date, day, Day_or_Night, Day_Zooplankton_ID, depth, dmo, erddap, fraction, management, mean, Mean_Depth, night, number, oceanography, office, preliminary, size, Size_fraction, zooplankton";
    String license "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/788512/license";
    String metadata_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/788512";
    String param_mapping "{'788512': {'Mean_Depth': 'flag - depth'}}";
    String parameter_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/788512/parameters";
    String people_0_affiliation "University of Michigan";
    String people_0_person_name "Joel D. Blum";
    String people_0_person_nid "560587";
    String people_0_role "Principal Investigator";
    String people_0_role_type "originator";
    String people_1_affiliation "University of South Carolina";
    String people_1_person_name "Claudia R. Benitez-Nelson";
    String people_1_person_nid "51092";
    String people_1_role "Co-Principal Investigator";
    String people_1_role_type "originator";
    String people_2_affiliation "University of Hawaii at Manoa";
    String people_2_affiliation_acronym "SOEST";
    String people_2_person_name "Jeffrey C. Drazen";
    String people_2_person_nid "491313";
    String people_2_role "Co-Principal Investigator";
    String people_2_role_type "originator";
    String people_3_affiliation "University of Hawaii at Manoa";
    String people_3_affiliation_acronym "SOEST";
    String people_3_person_name "Brian N. Popp";
    String people_3_person_nid "51093";
    String people_3_role "Co-Principal Investigator";
    String people_3_role_type "originator";
    String people_4_affiliation "University of Hawaii";
    String people_4_person_name "Kanesa Seraphin";
    String people_4_person_nid "537131";
    String people_4_role "Co-Principal Investigator";
    String people_4_role_type "originator";
    String people_5_affiliation "Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution";
    String people_5_affiliation_acronym "WHOI BCO-DMO";
    String people_5_person_name "Shannon Rauch";
    String people_5_person_nid "51498";
    String people_5_role "BCO-DMO Data Manager";
    String people_5_role_type "related";
    String project "Hg_Biogeochemistry";
    String projects_0_acronym "Hg_Biogeochemistry";
    String projects_0_description 
"NSF award abstract:
Mercury is a pervasive trace element that exists in several states in the marine environment, including monomethylmercury (MMHg), a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates in marine organisms and poses a human health threat. Understanding the fate of mercury in the ocean and resulting impacts on ocean food webs requires understanding the mechanisms controlling the depths at which mercury chemical transformations occur. Preliminary mercury analyses on nine species of marine fish from the North Pacific Ocean indicated that intermediate waters are an important entry point for MMHg into open ocean food webs. To elucidate the process controlling this, researchers will examine mercury dynamics in regions with differing vertical dissolved oxygen profiles, which should influence depths of mercury transformation. Results of the study will aid in a better understanding of the pathways by which mercury enters the marine food chain and can ultimately impact humans. This project will provide training for graduate and undergraduate students, and spread awareness on oceanic mercury through public outreach and informal science programs.
Mercury isotopic variations can provide insight into a wide variety of environmental processes. Isotopic compositions of mercury display mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) during most biotic and abiotic chemical reactions and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) during photochemical radical pair reactions. The unusual combination of MDF and MIF can provide information on reaction pathways and the biogeochemical history of mercury. Results from preliminary research provide strong evidence that net MMHg formation occurred below the surface mixed layer in the pycnocline and suggested that MMHg in low oxygen intermediate waters is an important entry point for mercury into open ocean food webs. These findings highlight the critical need to understand how MMHg levels in marine biota will respond to changes in atmospheric mercury emissions, deposition of inorganic mercury to the surface ocean, and hypothesized future expansion of oxygen minimum zones. Using field collections across ecosystems with contrasting biogeochemistry and mercury isotope fractionation experiments researchers will fill key knowledge gaps in mercury biogeochemistry. Results of the proposed research will enable scientists to assess the biogeochemical controls on where in the water column mercury methylation and demethylation likely occur.
Related background publication with supplemental data section:
Joel D. Blum, Brian N. Popp, Jeffrey C. Drazen, C. Anela Choy & Marcus W. Johnson. 2013. Methylmercury production below the mixed layer in the North Pacific Ocean. Nature Geoscience 6, 879–884. doi:10.1038/ngeo1918";
    String projects_0_end_date "2017-07";
    String projects_0_geolocation "Pacific Subtropical Gyre, Station ALOHA 22.75N 158W; equatorial Pacific (10N 155W, 5N 155W)";
    String projects_0_name "Collaborative Research: Isotopic insights to mercury in marine food webs and how it varies with ocean biogeochemistry";
    String projects_0_project_nid "560580";
    String projects_0_start_date "2014-08";
    String publisher_name "Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)";
    String publisher_type "institution";
    String sourceUrl "(local files)";
    String standard_name_vocabulary "CF Standard Name Table v55";
    String summary "This dataset contains the mercury stable isotope ratios collected in zooplankton during R/V Kilo Moana cruises around Station ALOHA (22.75N, 158W). These data were published in Motta et al., (2019) with supporting information.";
    String title "Mercury stable isotope values for zooplankton collected during R/V Kilo Moana cruises KM1418 and KM1506 around Station ALOHA in 2014 and 2015";
    String version "1";
    String xml_source "osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3";


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