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     data   graph     files  public Carbon flux for the Caribbean giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta (Sponge-loop)    ?     I   M   background (external link) RSS BCO-DMO bcodmo_dataset_685783

The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Suspension feeding by Xestospongia muta was investigated in situ on Conch Reef
(24\u00b056\u201959\u201dN; 80\u00b027\u201913\u201dW), Key Largo, Florida in
June of 2013. Food availability is known to vary temporally on Conch Reef
(e.g. McMurray et al. 2016); therefore, a total of 32 individuals were
haphazardly selected for study at 20 m depth over the course of 6 days (5-6
sponges day-1) to quantify feeding rates over a large natural range of food
abundances. Individuals spanned a broad range of sizes, however only
individuals with a single osculum were included.

A total of 1 L of both incurrent (ambient) and excurrent seawater was
collected from each sponge over a 5 minute sampling interval with paired 100
mL syringes as previously described (McMurray et al. 2016). Following seawater
sample collection, the dimensions of each sponge were measured and the
morphology of X. muta was approximated as a frustum of a cone to obtain sponge
volume estimates (McMurray, Blum & Pawlik 2008). Estimates of sponge pumping
rates were derived from the equation Q = 0.02 V1.1 (P < 0.001, R2 = 0.78;
McMurray et al. 2014), where Q is the pumping rate (ml s-1) and V is sponge
volume (cm3)

Particulate and dissolved organic carbon (POC and DOC, respectively) in
incurrent and excurrent seawater was quantified as previously described
(McMurray et al. 2016). Briefly, each sample was filtered through a 100
\u03bcm mesh and subsequently through a pre-combusted GF/F glass fiber filter.
In the laboratory, POC on filters was measured using a CE Elantech NC2100
elemental analyzer; DOC in filtrate samples was measured using high
temperature catalytic oxidation with a Shimadzu TOC 5050 analyzer.
Xestospongia muta hosts symbiotic microbes which may contribute to DOC
retention rates (Maldonado, Ribes & van Duyl 2012); therefore carbon flux
estimates reported here consider the sponge as a holobiont.

To assess the effects of sponge feeding on POC and DOC, differences in the
concentration of each food type between incurrent and excurrent seawater were
analyzed using paired t-tests. For each sponge, POC and DOC consumed were
calculated as the difference between the quantities of each food resource in
incurrent and excurrent seawater samples. To investigate selective feeding on
food resource types, and if relative foraging effort between food resources
varied as a function of relative food availability (McMurray et al. 2016), the
log10-transformed ratio of POC:DOC consumed was regressed against the
log10-transformed ratio of incurrent POC:DOC concentration (van Leeuwen et al.
2013). A one-tailed t-test was used to test if the slope of this regression
was greater than a slope of 1 to examine frequency-dependent food consumption.

Retention efficiency of each food resource was calculated as:

RE =\u00a0(Cin\u00a0-\u00a0Cex)/Cin x 100

where RE is the retention efficiency (%), and Cin and Cex are the incurrent
and excurrent quantities of each food resource (\u03bcM), respectively. The
filtration rate for each food resource was calculated as:\u00a0

FR = (Cin\u00a0-\u00a0Cex) x Q

where FR is the filtration rate (\u03bcmol C s-1). Ordinary least squares
regression was used to examine how filtration rates for each food resource
scaled with sponge size. Filtration rates were standardized by sponge volume
to obtain specific filtration rates (\u03bcmol C s-1 L-1). The relationship
between specific filtration rate and loge-transformed incurrent food abundance
for each food resource was described by ordinary least squares regression.

These data\u00a0were published in:
McMurray, S.E. 2015. The Dynamics of Sponge Populations and Benthic-pelagic
Carbon Flux on Coral Reefs. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of North Carolina
Wilmington.

\u00a0
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 676142
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1558580
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1558580 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String Dr Michael E. Sieracki
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50446
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Carbon flux for the Caribbean giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta
C. Finelli (UNC-W)
version: 2017-03-27
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.2d 13 Jun 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2017-03-24T18:06:46Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2018-10-03T18:58:57Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.685952
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/685783 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description String Used to measure POC
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 685793
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String Instruments that quantify carbon, nitrogen and sometimes other elements by combusting the sample at very high temperature and assaying the resulting gaseous oxides. Usually used for samples including organic material.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB01/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String Elemental Analyzer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 546339
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_supplied_name String CE Elantech NC2100 elemental analyzer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_dataset_instrument_description String Used to measure DOC
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_dataset_instrument_nid String 685794
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_description String Instruments that quantify carbon, nitrogen and sometimes other elements by combusting the sample at very high temperature and assaying the resulting gaseous oxides. Usually used for samples including organic material.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB01/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_name String Elemental Analyzer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_nid String 546339
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_supplied_name String Shimadzu TOC 5050 analyzer
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, color, commerce, data, dataset, department, dmo, doc, docconsumed, docex, docin, docre, erddap, frdoc, frpoc, frtoc, management, ocean, ocean color, oceanography, office, poc, pocconsumed, pocex, pocin, pocre, preliminary, spFRdoc, spFRpoc, spFRtoc, spongeid, spongevolume, time, toc, tocconsumed, tocex, tocin, tocre, volflow, watersampdate
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String The data may be used and redistributed for free but is not intended
for legal use, since it may contain inaccuracies. Neither the data
Contributor, ERD, NOAA, nor the United States Government, nor any
of their employees or contractors, makes any warranty, express or
implied, including warranties of merchantability and fitness for a
particular purpose, or assumes any legal liability for the accuracy,
completeness, or usefulness, of this information.
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/685783 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'685783': {}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/685783/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String University of North Carolina - Wilmington
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String UNC-Wilmington
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Christopher Finelli
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 676145
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String University of North Carolina - Wilmington
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String UNC-Wilmington
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Steven McMurray
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 685690
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String University of North Carolina - Wilmington
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String UNC-Wilmington
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Dr Joseph Pawlik
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 632984
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation String University of North Carolina - Wilmington
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation_acronym String UNC-Wilmington
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_name String Steven McMurray
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_nid String 685690
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role String Contact
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_person_name String Nancy Copley
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_person_nid String 50396
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Testing the sponge-loop hypothesis for Caribbean coral reefs
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String sponge-loop
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String NSF Abstract:
Sponges are bottom-dwelling animals that dominate Caribbean reefs now that reef-building corals have been declining for decades. Sponges feed by filtering huge volumes of seawater, providing a mechanism for recycling organic material back to the reef. A new theory has been proposed called the "sponge-loop hypothesis" that is potentially the most important new concept in marine ecology in many years, because it seeks to explain Darwin's Paradox: how do highly productive and diverse coral reefs grow in desert-like tropical seas? The sponge loop hypothesis proposes that sponges on coral reefs absorb the large quantities of dissolved organic carbon (molecules such as carbohydrates) that are released by seaweeds and corals and return it to the reef as particles in the form of living and dead cells, or other cellular debris. This project will use a rigorous set of techniques to test the sponge-loop hypothesis in the field on ten of the largest and most common sponges on Caribbean reefs. For each species, the contributions of particles and dissolved organic carbon to sponge nutrition will be measured, as well as the production of cellular particles in the seawater flowing out of the sponge. For selected sponge species, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon entering the sponge will be experimentally enhanced to determine the capacity of the sponge to absorb this potential food source, and to gauge its effect on the production of cellular particles. This project will provide STEM education and training for postdoctoral, graduate and undergraduate students and public outreach in the form of easily accessible educational videos. Further, this project is important for understanding the carbon cycle on coral reefs where the effects of climate change and ocean acidification may be tipping the competitive balance toward non-reef-building organisms, such as sponges.
The cycling of carbon from the water-column to the benthos is central to marine ecosystem function; for coral reefs, this process begins with photosynthesis by seaweeds and coral symbionts, which then exude a substantial portion of fixed carbon as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that may be lost to currents and tides. But if sponges, with their enormous water filtering capacity, can return DOC from the water column to the reef, it would represent a major unrecognized source of carbon cycling. The "sponge-loop hypothesis" has the potential to transform our understanding of carbon cycling on coral reefs. Building on preliminary data from studies of the giant barrel sponge, this project will investigate each of the three components of the sponge-loop hypothesis for ten common barrel, vase and tube-forming species that span a range of associations with microbial symbionts, from high microbial abundance (HMA) to low microbial abundance (LMA) in the sponge tissue. Specifically, the experimental approach will include InEx techniques (comparative sampling of seawater immediately before and after passage through the sponge), velocimetry, and flow cytometry to determine whether each species consumes DOC and produces particulate organic carbon (POC) in the form of cellular detritus. Then, for species that consume DOC, the same techniques will be used in manipulative experiments that augment the amount of DOC from three categories (labile, semi-labile and refractory) to determine the types of DOC consumed by sponges. In addition to testing the sponge-loop hypothesis, this project will use molecular techniques to investigate the differences among HMA and LMA sponge species, targeting the microbial symbionts that may be responsible for DOC uptake.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2019-01
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Conch Reef, Key Largo, Florida, USA; Carrie Bow Cay, Belize
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Testing the sponge-loop hypothesis for Caribbean coral reefs
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 676143
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2016-02
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Nancy Copley
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager(s)
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v29
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String This dataset includes flux measurements of dissolved, particulate and total
organic carbon associated with the Caribbean giant barrel sponge Xestospongia
muta on Conch Reef, Key Largo, FL in June 2013.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Carbon flux for the Caribbean giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta (Sponge-loop)
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.5-beta
variable spongeid   byte  
attribute spongeid _FillValue byte 127
attribute spongeid actual_range byte 1, 32
attribute spongeid description String unique identifier for each sponge sampled
attribute spongeid ioos_category String Unknown
attribute spongeid long_name String Spongeid
attribute spongeid units String unitless
variable watersampdate   String  
attribute watersampdate description String date of water sample formatted as yyyy-mm-dd
attribute watersampdate ioos_category String Unknown
attribute watersampdate long_name String Watersampdate
attribute watersampdate source_name String watersampdate
attribute watersampdate units String unitless
variable spongevolume   float  
attribute spongevolume _FillValue float NaN
attribute spongevolume actual_range float 39703.27, 289430.6
attribute spongevolume description String volume of each sponge
attribute spongevolume ioos_category String Unknown
attribute spongevolume long_name String Spongevolume
attribute spongevolume units String cubic centimeters (cm3)
variable volflow   float  
attribute volflow _FillValue float NaN
attribute volflow actual_range float 2289.491, 20357.71
attribute volflow description String volume flow (i.e pumping rate) for each sponge
attribute volflow ioos_category String Unknown
attribute volflow long_name String Volflow
attribute volflow units String milliliters/second (ml/s)
variable DOCin   float  
attribute DOCin _FillValue float NaN
attribute DOCin actual_range float 58.71, 123.7
attribute DOCin description String dissolved organic carbon in incurrent water samples
attribute DOCin ioos_category String Unknown
attribute DOCin long_name String DOCin
attribute DOCin units String micromolar (uM)
variable DOCex   float  
attribute DOCex _FillValue float NaN
attribute DOCex actual_range float 51.66, 87.4
attribute DOCex description String dissolved organic carbon in excurrent water samples
attribute DOCex ioos_category String Unknown
attribute DOCex long_name String DOCex
attribute DOCex units String micromolar (uM)
variable DOCconsumed   float  
attribute DOCconsumed _FillValue float NaN
attribute DOCconsumed actual_range float -16.32, 57.03
attribute DOCconsumed description String dissolved organic carbon consumed by sponges
attribute DOCconsumed ioos_category String Unknown
attribute DOCconsumed long_name String DOCconsumed
attribute DOCconsumed units String micromolar (uM)
variable DOCre   float  
attribute DOCre _FillValue float NaN
attribute DOCre actual_range float -25.362, 46.104
attribute DOCre description String sponge retention efficiency for dissolved organic carbon
attribute DOCre ioos_category String Unknown
attribute DOCre long_name String DOCre
attribute DOCre units String percent
variable frDOC   float  
attribute frDOC _FillValue float NaN
attribute frDOC actual_range float -98.7393, 440.7157
attribute frDOC description String sponge filtration rate of dissolved organic carbon
attribute frDOC ioos_category String Unknown
attribute frDOC long_name String Fr DOC
attribute frDOC units String micromoles/second (umol/s)
variable spFRdoc   float  
attribute spFRdoc _FillValue float NaN
attribute spFRdoc actual_range float -1.02801, 3.45284
attribute spFRdoc description String specific sponge filtration rate of dissolved organic carbon
attribute spFRdoc ioos_category String Unknown
attribute spFRdoc long_name String Sp FRdoc
attribute spFRdoc units String micromoles/second/liter (umol/s/L sponge)
variable POCin   float  
attribute POCin _FillValue float NaN
attribute POCin actual_range float 7.50639, 18.38664
attribute POCin description String particulate organic carbon in incurrent water samples
attribute POCin ioos_category String Unknown
attribute POCin long_name String POCin
attribute POCin units String micromolar (uM)
variable POCex   float  
attribute POCex _FillValue float NaN
attribute POCex actual_range float 1.72277, 5.49942
attribute POCex description String particulate organic carbon in excurrent water samples
attribute POCex ioos_category String Unknown
attribute POCex long_name String POCex
attribute POCex units String micromolar (uM)
variable POCconsumed   float  
attribute POCconsumed _FillValue float NaN
attribute POCconsumed actual_range float 2.81028, 16.03812
attribute POCconsumed description String particulate organic carbon consumed by sponges
attribute POCconsumed ioos_category String Unknown
attribute POCconsumed long_name String POCconsumed
attribute POCconsumed units String micromolar (uM)
variable POCre   float  
attribute POCre _FillValue float NaN
attribute POCre actual_range float 33.81931, 88.04695
attribute POCre description String sponge retention efficiency for particulate organic carbon
attribute POCre ioos_category String Unknown
attribute POCre long_name String POCre
attribute POCre units String percent
variable frPOC   float  
attribute frPOC _FillValue float NaN
attribute frPOC actual_range float 10.24699, 302.0567
attribute frPOC description String sponge filtration rate of particulate organic carbon
attribute frPOC ioos_category String Ocean Color
attribute frPOC long_name String Fr POC
attribute frPOC units String micromoles/second (umol/s)
variable spFRpoc   float  
attribute spFRpoc _FillValue float NaN
attribute spFRpoc actual_range float 0.16906, 1.08025
attribute spFRpoc description String specific sponge filtration rate of particulate organic carbon
attribute spFRpoc ioos_category String Unknown
attribute spFRpoc long_name String Sp FRpoc
attribute spFRpoc units String micromoles/second/liter (umol/s/L sponge)
variable TOCin   double  
attribute TOCin _FillValue double NaN
attribute TOCin actual_range double 69.23609, 142.08664
attribute TOCin description String total organic carbon in incurrent water samples
attribute TOCin ioos_category String Unknown
attribute TOCin long_name String TOCin
attribute TOCin units String micromolar (uM)
variable TOCex   float  
attribute TOCex _FillValue float NaN
attribute TOCex actual_range float 55.28455, 90.24603
attribute TOCex description String total organic carbon in excurrent water samples
attribute TOCex ioos_category String Unknown
attribute TOCex long_name String TOCex
attribute TOCex units String micromolar (uM)
variable TOCconsumed   float  
attribute TOCconsumed _FillValue float NaN
attribute TOCconsumed actual_range float -9.89744, 73.06812
attribute TOCconsumed description String total organic carbon consumed by sponges
attribute TOCconsumed ioos_category String Unknown
attribute TOCconsumed long_name String TOCconsumed
attribute TOCconsumed units String micromolar (uM)
variable TOCre   float  
attribute TOCre _FillValue float NaN
attribute TOCre actual_range float -12.31813, 51.42505
attribute TOCre description String sponge retention efficiency for total organic carbon
attribute TOCre ioos_category String Unknown
attribute TOCre long_name String TOCre
attribute TOCre units String percent
variable frTOC   double  
attribute frTOC _FillValue double NaN
attribute frTOC actual_range double -59.88155, 699.90648
attribute frTOC description String sponge filtration rate of total organic carbon
attribute frTOC ioos_category String Unknown
attribute frTOC long_name String Fr TOC
attribute frTOC units String micromoles/second (umol/s)
variable spFRtoc   float  
attribute spFRtoc _FillValue float NaN
attribute spFRtoc actual_range float -0.62345, 4.42386
attribute spFRtoc description String specific sponge filtration rate of total organic carbon
attribute spFRtoc ioos_category String Unknown
attribute spFRtoc long_name String Sp FRtoc
attribute spFRtoc units String micromoles/second/liter (umol/s/L sponge)

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.


 
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