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Title Sum-
RSS Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Experimental study to estimate per capita sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus polyacanthus)
grazing rates on the alga Clathromorphum nereostratum as a function of seawater temperature
and pCO2 concentration
   ?     I   M   background (external link) RSS BCO-DMO bcodmo_dataset_755735

The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String To evaluate whether rates of sea urchin grazing on C. nereostratum have
changed or will change with ocean warming and acidification, we cultured C.
nereostratum and S. polyacanthus under experimental conditions mimicking past,
present, and predicted future levels of ocean temperature and pCO2 in the
region, then followed this three-month culturing period with a controlled
feeding experiment conducted under the same conditions. Small C. nereostratum
colonies (~4-5 cm diameter) and large S. polyacanthus (~45-60 mm test
diameter) were live collected from Adak in 2015 and immediately transported to
the Northeastern University Marine Science Center in Nahant, Massachusetts.
There, all specimens were acclimated to laboratory conditions at 8.5 \u00b0C
for two weeks, after which individual C. nereostratum colonies were attached
to the underside of plastic petri dishes using cyanoacrylate glue and then
allowed to acclimate for an additional two weeks before being moved to
experimental aquaria. Conditions were then incrementally modified to achieve
target temperature and pCO2 levels (see below) over a one-week period. After
reaching target conditions, each 42-L aquarium was dosed with 213 mL of
calcein fluorescent dye (Western Chemicals Inc.), which was recirculated in
the aquaria for three days and then flushed from the system. Coralline algae
incorporate the dye into their skeleton, thus creating a distinct line that
can be viewed via fluorescent microscopy to demark the region of new growth
within each individual.

We employed four pCO2 conditions and three temperatures that, while
factorially crossed, spanned pre-industrial, present-day, and projected year
2100 conditions (assuming an IPCC \"business as usual\" carbon emissions
scenario; Pachauri and Meyer 2014). More extreme temperature (12.5 degrees C)
and pCO2 (2800 micro-atm) conditions were also employed in the broader
experiment but were not included in our experimental feeding assay because
they are not predicted to occur until year 2500, or later. For each treatment,
we set temperature to average summertime conditions, the time when ~75% of C.
nereostratum growth occurs (Adey et al. 2013).

All treatments (4 pCO2 concentrations x 3 temperatures, fully factorial) were
housed on individual shelves and consisted of three 42-liter acrylic aquaria
and one 65-liter sump (n = 3 tanks/treatment). The aquaria were connected to a
sump via a common overflow and return line but were each independently and
continuously replenished with new seawater-thereby establishing them as true
experimental replicates. The sump contained a filter box with a nylon mesh
particle filter and activated carbon, a protein skimmer (Eshopps PSK-75), and
a return pump, all of which was connected to a water chiller (Coralife 1/4HP).
Filtered natural seawater was added via Darhor manual flow controllers at a
rate of 50 mL/min/tank, resulting in full replacement of treatment water every
~21 hours-sufficiently fast to prevent material depletion of the dissolved
constituents of the seawater yet slow enough to allow the mixed gases being
sparged into the experimental treatments to approach equilibrium with the
seawater. Mixed gases were sparged into each tank with 91 cm long flexible
bubblers at the rate of ~1 L/min via Darhor needle-valve gas flow controllers.
Two 12,000K LED light arrays (Ecoxotic Panorama, Pro 24V) were mounted above
each tank and set to an irradiance that mirrored average summer daylight
irradiance at 10 m depth in the Aleutian Islands (~258 micro-E m-2 s-1; 12 hr
light:12 hr dark cycle).

Over the course of the four-month experiment, we measured pH (Accumet AB15 pH
meter with Accufet solid state probe), salinity (YSI3200 meter with K=10
conductivity electrode and temperature probe), and temperature (NIST traceable
red spirit glass thermometer) in each tank every Monday, Wednesday, and
Friday. The pCO2 of the gas mixtures was measured with a Qubit S151 infrared
CO2 analyzer and calibrated with certified mixed CO2 from Airgas Incorporated.
Every 10 days, we characterized the full carbonate system chemistry of the
experimental treatments from measured total alkalinity, dissolved inorganic
carbon, temperature, and salinity. For this, seawater samples were obtained in
250 mL borosilicate ground-glass-stoppered bottles and immediately poisoned
with 100 micro-L of saturated HgCl2 solution to halt biological activity
(Dickson et al. 2007). Total alkalinity was measured via closed-cell
potentiometric Gran titration and dissolved inorganic carbon was measured with
a UIC 5400 Coulometer on a VINDTA 3C (Marianda Incorporated) using Dickson
certified seawater reference material. Seawater pCO2, pH, carbonate ion
concentration ([CO32-]) bicarbonate ion concentration ([HCO3-]), aqueous CO2,
and calcite saturation state were calculated with the program CO2SYS (Lewis
and Wallace 1998), using Roy and colleague's (1993) values for the K1 and K2
carbonic acid constants, the Mucci (1983) value for the stoichiometric calcite
solubility product, the seawater pH scale, and an atmospheric pressure of
1.015 atm.

At the beginning of the experiment we measured the buoyant weight of each
specimen. We then scrubbed each specimen with a toothbrush and reweighed it
every month and at the end of the experiment. With each weighing, we also
photographed the specimen with a ruler and Reef Watch coral bleaching card in
the field of view. We then measured the 2-d surface area (coralline algae) or
test diameter (urchin) of the photographed specimens (Image J, NIH). Following
a three-month incubation, a subset of the coralline algae was placed
individually in cages and paired with a single urchin to quantify bioerosion
rate under the different treatments, while the remaining algae were retained
as experimental controls during the 20-day feeding experiment, and
subsequently measured for skeletal density. Following the feeding experiment,
all coralline algae were sectioned with a diamond lapidary saw (Inland Craft
SwapTop 6.5\" Diamond Trim Saw) and either frozen for genetic analysis or
sectioned into 6 mm slices, rinsed in a series of two 90% Ethanol baths, and
allowed to air dry for further examination of growth and skeletal density.

After three months of culturing C. nereostratum and large S. polyacanthus
(mean test diameter \u00b1 SE = 53 \u00b1 1 mm) under various temperature and
pCO2 conditions (see above), we conducted a controlled feeding assay.
Individual coralline algae were randomly paired with sea urchins from the same
tank and placed into small cages (n = 5/tank, 15/treatment) and returned to
aquaria, with the remaining coralline algae from each tank serving as
controls. Buoyant weight measurements and photographs of each alga and urchin
were obtained at the beginning of the experiment (as described above) and
again every five days. We excluded replicates where: (i) the sea urchin
appeared moribund or died during the assay; or (ii) negligible grazing
occurred throughout the experiment, indicating severe stress to the animal.
Buoyant weights were converted to dry weight (mg) using an empirically-derived
conversion factor (linear regression: -0.117448 + 1.746361 * buoyant mass;
adjusted R^2 = 0.9996; p < 0.001). To calculate the amount of C. nereostratum
(mg CaCO3 dry weight) consumed by each urchin at each sampling interval while
also accounting for the potential gain or loss of mass within the treatment
alga, we used the equation [Ti x (Cf/Ci)] - Tf, where Ti and Tf is the initial
and final mass (respectively) of an alga exposed to herbivory, and Ci and
Cf\u00a0 is the initial and final mass (respectively) of its paired control.
For this exercise, we averaged correction factors (Cf/Ci) for all control
algae in a given tank, and applied this average correction factor to each
treatment alga in the same tank. We then computed grazing rate (amount
consumed/day) for each sea urchin, as well as per capita grazing rates
standardized by the surface area of C. nereostratum.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 526658
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String PLR-1316141
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1316141 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Arctic Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF ARC
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 390
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String Dr Henrietta N Edmonds
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 51517
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Estimates of per capita sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus polyacanthus) grazing rates on the alga Clathromorphum nereostratum
PI's: Steneck (Umaine), J. Estes (UCSC), D. Rasher (BLOS)
version: 2019-02-013
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.2d 13 Jun 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2019-02-13T21:41:10Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-02-25T21:04:03Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.755735.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/755735 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_acronym String CO2 coulometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description String To measure dissolved inorganic carbon
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 755749
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String A CO2 coulometer semi-automatically controls the sample handling and extraction of CO2 from seawater samples. Samples are acidified and the CO2 gas is bubbled into a titration cell where CO2 is converted to hydroxyethylcarbonic acid which is then automatically titrated with a coulometrically-generated base to a colorimetric endpoint.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB12 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String CO2 Coulometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 507
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_supplied_name String UIC 5400 Coulometer on a VINDTA 3C
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_acronym String Salinometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_dataset_instrument_description String To measure salinity and temperature of tanks
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_dataset_instrument_nid String 755746
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_description String A salinometer is a device designed to measure the salinity, or dissolved salt content, of a solution.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_name String Salinometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_nid String 677
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_supplied_name String YSI3200 meter with K=10 conductivity electrode and temperature probe
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_acronym String Benchtop pH Meter
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_dataset_instrument_description String To measure pH of tanks
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_dataset_instrument_nid String 755745
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_description String An instrument consisting of an electronic voltmeter and pH-responsive electrode that gives a direct conversion of voltage differences to differences of pH at the measurement temperature. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms)
This instrument does not map to the NERC instrument vocabulary term for 'pH Sensor' which measures values in the water column. Benchtop models are typically employed for stationary lab applications.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_instrument_name String Benchtop pH Meter
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_instrument_nid String 681
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_supplied_name String Accumet AB15 pH meter with Accufet solid state probe
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_acronym String inorganic carbon and alkalinity analyser
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_dataset_instrument_nid String 755750
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_description String The Versatile INstrument for the Determination of Total inorganic carbon and titration Alkalinity (VINDTA) 3C is a laboratory alkalinity titration system combined with an extraction unit for coulometric titration, which simultaneously determines the alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon content of a sample. The sample transport is performed with peristaltic pumps and acid is added to the sample using a membrane pump. No pressurizing system is required and only one gas supply (nitrogen or dry and CO2-free air) is necessary. The system uses a Metrohm Titrino 719S, an ORION-Ross pH electrode and a Metrohm reference electrode. The burette, the pipette and the analysis cell have a water jacket around them. Precision is typically +/- 1 umol/kg for TA and/or DIC in open ocean water.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L22/current/TOOL0481/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_instrument_name String MARIANDA VINDTA 3C total inorganic carbon and titration alkalinity analyser
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_instrument_nid String 686
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_acronym String MFC
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_dataset_instrument_nid String 755848
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_description String Mass Flow Controller (MFC) - A device used to measure and control the flow of fluids and gases
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_instrument_name String Mass Flow Controller
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_instrument_nid String 712
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_supplied_name String Darhor manual flow controllers
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_5_acronym String CO2 Analyzer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_5_dataset_instrument_description String To measure pCO2 in tanks
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_5_dataset_instrument_nid String 755748
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_5_description String Measures atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_5_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/382/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_5_instrument_name String CO2 Analyzer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_5_instrument_nid String 491476
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_5_supplied_name String Qubit S151 infrared CO2 analyzer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_6_acronym String Aquarium chiller
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_6_dataset_instrument_nid String 755847
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_6_description String Immersible or in-line liquid cooling device, usually with temperature control.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_6_instrument_name String Aquarium chiller
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_6_instrument_nid String 522982
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_6_supplied_name String Coralife 1/4HP
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_7_dataset_instrument_description String To measure temperature in the tanks
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_7_dataset_instrument_nid String 755747
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_7_instrument_name String Thermometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_7_instrument_nid String 725867
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_7_supplied_name String NIST traceable red spirit glass thermometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String amount, amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T10, amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T15, amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T20, amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T5, amount_mg_consumed_day_T10, amount_mg_consumed_day_T15, amount_mg_consumed_day_T20, amount_mg_consumed_day_T5, amount_mg_consumed_T10, amount_mg_consumed_T15, amount_mg_consumed_T20, amount_mg_consumed_T5, area, ave, ave_correction_factor_T10, ave_correction_factor_T15, ave_correction_factor_T20, ave_correction_factor_T5, bco, bco-dmo, biological, carbon, carbon dioxide, cca, cca_surface_area_cm2, chemical, cm2, co2, consumed, corrected, corrected_initial_mass_grams_T10, corrected_initial_mass_grams_T15, corrected_initial_mass_grams_T20, corrected_initial_mass_grams_T5, correction, correction_factor_T10, correction_factor_T15, correction_factor_T20, correction_factor_T5, data, dataset, date, date_10, date_T15, date_T20, date_T5, day, days, diameter, dioxide, dmo, duration, duration_days_10, duration_days_T15, duration_days_T20, duration_days_T5, erddap, factor, grams, grazing, initial, management, mass, oceanography, office, preliminary, replicate, sample, sample_mass_grams_T0, sample_mass_grams_T10, sample_mass_grams_T15, sample_mass_grams_T20, sample_mass_grams_T5, sampling, sampling_time_10, sampling_time_T0, sampling_time_T15, sampling_time_T20, sampling_time_T5, standard, standard_ave_grams_T0, standard_ave_grams_T10, standard_ave_grams_T15, standard_ave_grams_T20, standard_ave_grams_T5, surface, t10, t15, t20, tank, tank_pCO2_ave, tank_temp_ave, temperature, time, treatment, treatment_grazing, treatment_pCO2, treatment_temp, urchin, urchin_diameter_mm
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String The data may be used and redistributed for free but is not intended
for legal use, since it may contain inaccuracies. Neither the data
Contributor, ERD, NOAA, nor the United States Government, nor any
of their employees or contractors, makes any warranty, express or
implied, including warranties of merchantability and fitness for a
particular purpose, or assumes any legal liability for the accuracy,
completeness, or usefulness, of this information.
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/755735 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'755735': {}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/755735/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String University of Maine
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String U Maine DMC
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Robert S. Steneck
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 526659
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String University of California-Santa Cruz
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String UC Santa Cruz
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String James Estes
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 51389
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Douglas B. Rasher
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 480721
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_name String Nancy Copley
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_nid String 50396
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Ocean Acidification: Century Scale Impacts to Ecosystem Structure and Function of Aleutian Kelp Forests
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String OA Kelp Forest Function
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String Extracted from the NSF award abstract:
Marine calcifying organisms are most at risk to rapid ocean acidification (OA) in cold-water ecosystems. The investigators propose to determine if a globally unique and widespread calcareous alga in Alaska's Aleutian archipelago, Clathromorphum nereostratum, is threatened with extinction due to the combined effects of OA and food web alterations. C. nereostratum is a slow growing coralline alga that can live to at least 2000 years. It accretes massive 'bioherms' that dominate the regions' rocky substrate both under kelp forests and deforested sea urchin barrens. It develops growth bands (similar to tree rings) in its calcareous skeleton, which effectively record its annual calcification rate over centuries. Pilot data suggest the skeletal density of C. nereostratum began to decline precipitously in the 1990's in some parts of the Aleutian archipelago. The investigators now propose to use high-resolution microscopy and microCT imaging to examine how the growth and skeletal density of C. nereostratum has changed in the past 300 years (i.e., since the industrial revolution) across the western Aleutians. They will compare their records of algal skeletal densities and their variation through time with reconstructions of past climate to infer causes of change. In addition, the investigators will examine whether the alga's defense against grazing by sea urchins is compromised by ongoing ocean acidification. The investigators will survey the extent of C. nereostratum bioerosion occurring at 10 sites spanning the western Aleutians, both inside and outside of kelp forests. At each site they will compare these patterns to observed and monitored ecosystem trophic structure and recent C. nereostratum calcification rates. Field observations will be combined with laboratory experiments to determine if it is a decline in the alga's skeletal density (due to recent OA and warming), an increase in grazing intensity (due to recent trophic-level dysfunction), or their interactive effects that are likely responsible for bioerosion patterns inside vs. outside of forests. By sampling C. nereostratum inside and outside of forests, they will determine if kelp forests locally increase pH via photosynthesis, and thus buffer the effects of OA on coralline calcification. The combination of field observations with laboratory controlled experiments, manipulating CO2 and temperature, will help elucidate drivers of calcification and project how these species interactions will likely change in the near future. The project will provide the first in situ example of how ongoing ocean acidification is affecting the physiology of long-lived, carbonate producing organisms in the subarctic North Pacific. It will also be one of the first studies to document whether OA, ocean warming, and food web changes to ecological processes are interacting in complex ways to reshape the outcome of species interactions in nature.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2016-08
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Ocean Acidification: Century Scale Impacts to Ecosystem Structure and Function of Aleutian Kelp Forests
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 526660
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2013-09
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Nancy Copley
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager(s)
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v29
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Estimates of per capita sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus polyacanthus) grazing rates on the alga Clathromorphum nereostratum, evaluated as a function of seawater temperature and pCO2 concentration that each were simultaneously cultured in for three months. Incubations and assays were performed in a controlled mesocosm setting.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Experimental study to estimate per capita sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus polyacanthus) grazing rates on the alga Clathromorphum nereostratum as a function of seawater temperature and pCO2 concentration
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.5-beta
variable treatment_temp   float  
attribute treatment_temp _FillValue float NaN
attribute treatment_temp actual_range float 6.5, 8.5
attribute treatment_temp description String target temperature
attribute treatment_temp ioos_category String Unknown
attribute treatment_temp long_name String Treatment Temp
attribute treatment_temp units String degrees Celsius
variable treatment_pCO2   short  
attribute treatment_pCO2 _FillValue short 32767
attribute treatment_pCO2 actual_range short 330, 850
attribute treatment_pCO2 description String target pCO2 concentration
attribute treatment_pCO2 ioos_category String CO2
attribute treatment_pCO2 long_name String Treatment P CO2
attribute treatment_pCO2 units String microatmospheres (uatm)
variable tank   byte  
attribute tank _FillValue byte 127
attribute tank actual_range byte 1, 3
attribute tank description String replicate tank identifier
attribute tank ioos_category String Unknown
attribute tank long_name String Tank
attribute tank units String unitless
variable tank_temp_ave   float  
attribute tank_temp_ave _FillValue float NaN
attribute tank_temp_ave actual_range float 6.33, 8.91
attribute tank_temp_ave description String average tank temperature during study
attribute tank_temp_ave ioos_category String Unknown
attribute tank_temp_ave long_name String Tank Temp Ave
attribute tank_temp_ave units String degrees Celsius
variable tank_pCO2_ave   float  
attribute tank_pCO2_ave _FillValue float NaN
attribute tank_pCO2_ave actual_range float 323.1, 1110.49
attribute tank_pCO2_ave description String average tank pCO2 concentration during study
attribute tank_pCO2_ave ioos_category String CO2
attribute tank_pCO2_ave long_name String Tank P CO2 Ave
attribute tank_pCO2_ave units String microatmospheres (uatm)
variable replicate   byte  
attribute replicate _FillValue byte 127
attribute replicate actual_range byte 1, 5
attribute replicate description String replicate individual urchin or alga
attribute replicate ioos_category String Unknown
attribute replicate long_name String Replicate
attribute replicate units String unitless
variable treatment_grazing   String  
attribute treatment_grazing description String treatment = coralline alga exposed to herbivory; control = no herbivory
attribute treatment_grazing ioos_category String Unknown
attribute treatment_grazing long_name String Treatment Grazing
attribute treatment_grazing units String unitless
variable urchin_diameter_mm   byte  
attribute urchin_diameter_mm _FillValue byte 127
attribute urchin_diameter_mm actual_range byte 43, 64
attribute urchin_diameter_mm description String size (test diameter) of sea urchin
attribute urchin_diameter_mm ioos_category String Unknown
attribute urchin_diameter_mm long_name String Urchin Diameter Mm
attribute urchin_diameter_mm units String millimeters
variable cca_surface_area_cm2   float  
attribute cca_surface_area_cm2 _FillValue float NaN
attribute cca_surface_area_cm2 actual_range float 5.15, 38.14
attribute cca_surface_area_cm2 description String surface area of coralline alga
attribute cca_surface_area_cm2 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute cca_surface_area_cm2 long_name String Cca Surface Area Cm2
attribute cca_surface_area_cm2 units String square centimeters (cm^2)
variable date_T0   String  
attribute date_T0 description String date of sampling at timepoint T0; formatted as yyyy-mm-dd
attribute date_T0 ioos_category String Time
attribute date_T0 long_name String Date T0
attribute date_T0 source_name String date_T0
attribute date_T0 units String unitless
variable sampling_time_T0   String  
attribute sampling_time_T0 description String time of sampling (24 hr clock) (HH:MM)
attribute sampling_time_T0 ioos_category String Time
attribute sampling_time_T0 long_name String Sampling Time T0
attribute sampling_time_T0 units String unitless
variable standard_ave_grams_T0   float  
attribute standard_ave_grams_T0 _FillValue float NaN
attribute standard_ave_grams_T0 actual_range float 4.6, 4.603
attribute standard_ave_grams_T0 description String average mass of experimental standard at time point x
attribute standard_ave_grams_T0 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute standard_ave_grams_T0 long_name String Standard Ave Grams T0
attribute standard_ave_grams_T0 units String grams
variable sample_mass_grams_T0   float  
attribute sample_mass_grams_T0 _FillValue float NaN
attribute sample_mass_grams_T0 actual_range float 1.599, 22.702
attribute sample_mass_grams_T0 description String average mass of coralline alga at time x
attribute sample_mass_grams_T0 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute sample_mass_grams_T0 long_name String Sample Mass Grams T0
attribute sample_mass_grams_T0 units String grams
variable date_T5   String  
attribute date_T5 description String date of sampling; formatted as yyyy-mm-dd
attribute date_T5 ioos_category String Time
attribute date_T5 long_name String Date T5
attribute date_T5 units String unitless
variable sampling_time_T5   String  
attribute sampling_time_T5 description String time of sampling (24 hr clock) (HH:MM)
attribute sampling_time_T5 ioos_category String Time
attribute sampling_time_T5 long_name String Sampling Time T5
attribute sampling_time_T5 units String unitless
variable duration_days_T5   float  
attribute duration_days_T5 _FillValue float NaN
attribute duration_days_T5 actual_range float 4.92, 5.05
attribute duration_days_T5 description String duration of assay at timepoint T0
attribute duration_days_T5 ioos_category String Time
attribute duration_days_T5 long_name String Duration Days T5
attribute duration_days_T5 units String days
variable standard_ave_grams_T5   float  
attribute standard_ave_grams_T5 _FillValue float NaN
attribute standard_ave_grams_T5 actual_range float 4.599, 4.602
attribute standard_ave_grams_T5 description String average mass of eT0perimental standard at time point T0
attribute standard_ave_grams_T5 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute standard_ave_grams_T5 long_name String Standard Ave Grams T5
attribute standard_ave_grams_T5 units String grams
variable sample_mass_grams_T5   float  
attribute sample_mass_grams_T5 _FillValue float NaN
attribute sample_mass_grams_T5 actual_range float 1.521, 22.71
attribute sample_mass_grams_T5 description String average mass of coralline alga at time T0
attribute sample_mass_grams_T5 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute sample_mass_grams_T5 long_name String Sample Mass Grams T5
attribute sample_mass_grams_T5 units String grams
variable correction_factor_T5   float  
attribute correction_factor_T5 _FillValue float NaN
attribute correction_factor_T5 actual_range float 0.987, 1.021
attribute correction_factor_T5 description String correction factor; computed by dividing the final mass of the control alga (at time T0) by its initial mass (at time T0)
attribute correction_factor_T5 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute correction_factor_T5 long_name String Correction Factor T5
attribute correction_factor_T5 units String unitless
variable ave_correction_factor_T5   float  
attribute ave_correction_factor_T5 _FillValue float NaN
attribute ave_correction_factor_T5 actual_range float 0.998, 1.008
attribute ave_correction_factor_T5 description String the average correction factor computed for all control coralline algae in a given tank at time T0
attribute ave_correction_factor_T5 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute ave_correction_factor_T5 long_name String Ave Correction Factor T5
attribute ave_correction_factor_T5 units String unitless
variable corrected_initial_mass_grams_T5   float  
attribute corrected_initial_mass_grams_T5 _FillValue float NaN
attribute corrected_initial_mass_grams_T5 actual_range float 1.604, 8.929
attribute corrected_initial_mass_grams_T5 description String sample.mass.grams.T0 * ave.correction.factor.T0
attribute corrected_initial_mass_grams_T5 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute corrected_initial_mass_grams_T5 long_name String Corrected Initial Mass Grams T5
attribute corrected_initial_mass_grams_T5 units String grams
variable amount_mg_consumed_T5   float  
attribute amount_mg_consumed_T5 _FillValue float NaN
attribute amount_mg_consumed_T5 actual_range float 12.811, 415.569
attribute amount_mg_consumed_T5 description String the total amount of coralline algae consumed by a sea urchin at time T0; computed by subtracting sample.mass.grams.T0 from corrected.initial.mass.grams.T0; then * 1000
attribute amount_mg_consumed_T5 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute amount_mg_consumed_T5 long_name String Amount Mg Consumed T5
attribute amount_mg_consumed_T5 units String milligrams
variable amount_mg_consumed_day_T5   float  
attribute amount_mg_consumed_day_T5 _FillValue float NaN
attribute amount_mg_consumed_day_T5 actual_range float 2.595, 83.287
attribute amount_mg_consumed_day_T5 description String rate of algal consumption (per day); computed by dividing amount.mg.consumed.T0 by duration.days
attribute amount_mg_consumed_day_T5 ioos_category String Time
attribute amount_mg_consumed_day_T5 long_name String Amount Mg Consumed Day T5
attribute amount_mg_consumed_day_T5 units String milligrams
variable amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T5   float  
attribute amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T5 _FillValue float NaN
attribute amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T5 actual_range float 0.176, 6.81
attribute amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T5 description String rate of algal consumption (per day); standardized by the surface area of the coralline alga (using cca.surface.area.cm^2)
attribute amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T5 ioos_category String Time
attribute amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T5 long_name String Amount Mg Consumed Cm2 Day T5
attribute amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T5 units String milligrams
variable date_10   String  
attribute date_10 description String date of sampling at timepoint T5; formatted as yyyy-mm-dd
attribute date_10 ioos_category String Time
attribute date_10 long_name String Date 10
attribute date_10 units String unitless
variable sampling_time_10   String  
attribute sampling_time_10 description String time of sampling (24 hr clock) (HH:MM)
attribute sampling_time_10 ioos_category String Time
attribute sampling_time_10 long_name String Sampling Time 10
attribute sampling_time_10 units String unitless
variable duration_days_10   float  
attribute duration_days_10 _FillValue float NaN
attribute duration_days_10 actual_range float 10.11, 10.78
attribute duration_days_10 description String duration of assay at timepoint T10
attribute duration_days_10 ioos_category String Time
attribute duration_days_10 long_name String Duration Days 10
attribute duration_days_10 units String days
variable standard_ave_grams_T10   float  
attribute standard_ave_grams_T10 _FillValue float NaN
attribute standard_ave_grams_T10 actual_range float 4.599, 4.603
attribute standard_ave_grams_T10 description String average mass of eT10perimental standard at time point T10
attribute standard_ave_grams_T10 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute standard_ave_grams_T10 long_name String Standard Ave Grams T10
attribute standard_ave_grams_T10 units String grams
variable sample_mass_grams_T10   float  
attribute sample_mass_grams_T10 _FillValue float NaN
attribute sample_mass_grams_T10 actual_range float 1.413, 22.802
attribute sample_mass_grams_T10 description String average mass of coralline alga at time T10
attribute sample_mass_grams_T10 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute sample_mass_grams_T10 long_name String Sample Mass Grams T10
attribute sample_mass_grams_T10 units String grams
variable correction_factor_T10   float  
attribute correction_factor_T10 _FillValue float NaN
attribute correction_factor_T10 actual_range float 0.908, 1.144
attribute correction_factor_T10 description String correction factor; computed by dividing the final mass of the control alga (at time T10) by its initial mass (at time T0)
attribute correction_factor_T10 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute correction_factor_T10 long_name String Correction Factor T10
attribute correction_factor_T10 units String unitless
variable ave_correction_factor_T10   float  
attribute ave_correction_factor_T10 _FillValue float NaN
attribute ave_correction_factor_T10 actual_range float 1.0, 1.02
attribute ave_correction_factor_T10 description String the average correction factor computed for all control coralline algae in a given tank at time T10
attribute ave_correction_factor_T10 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute ave_correction_factor_T10 long_name String Ave Correction Factor T10
attribute ave_correction_factor_T10 units String unitless
variable corrected_initial_mass_grams_T10   float  
attribute corrected_initial_mass_grams_T10 _FillValue float NaN
attribute corrected_initial_mass_grams_T10 actual_range float 1.613, 8.931
attribute corrected_initial_mass_grams_T10 description String sample.mass.grams.T0 * ave.correction.factor.T10
attribute corrected_initial_mass_grams_T10 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute corrected_initial_mass_grams_T10 long_name String Corrected Initial Mass Grams T10
attribute corrected_initial_mass_grams_T10 units String grams
variable amount_mg_consumed_T10   float  
attribute amount_mg_consumed_T10 _FillValue float NaN
attribute amount_mg_consumed_T10 actual_range float 43.594, 636.11
attribute amount_mg_consumed_T10 description String the total amount of coralline algae consumed by a sea urchin at time T10; computed by subtracting sample.mass.grams.T10 from corrected.initial.mass.grams.T10; then * 1000
attribute amount_mg_consumed_T10 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute amount_mg_consumed_T10 long_name String Amount Mg Consumed T10
attribute amount_mg_consumed_T10 units String milligrams
variable amount_mg_consumed_day_T10   float  
attribute amount_mg_consumed_day_T10 _FillValue float NaN
attribute amount_mg_consumed_day_T10 actual_range float 4.055, 62.42
attribute amount_mg_consumed_day_T10 description String rate of algal consumption (per day); computed by dividing amount.mg.consumed.T10 by duration.days
attribute amount_mg_consumed_day_T10 ioos_category String Time
attribute amount_mg_consumed_day_T10 long_name String Amount Mg Consumed Day T10
attribute amount_mg_consumed_day_T10 units String milligrams
variable amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T10   float  
attribute amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T10 _FillValue float NaN
attribute amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T10 actual_range float 0.333, 5.33
attribute amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T10 description String rate of algal consumption (per day); standardized by the surface area of the coralline alga (using cca.surface.area.cm^2)
attribute amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T10 ioos_category String Time
attribute amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T10 long_name String Amount Mg Consumed Cm2 Day T10
attribute amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T10 units String milligrams
variable date_T15   String  
attribute date_T15 description String date of sampling at timepoint T15; formatted as yyyy-mm-dd
attribute date_T15 ioos_category String Time
attribute date_T15 long_name String Date T15
attribute date_T15 units String unitless
variable sampling_time_T15   String  
attribute sampling_time_T15 description String time of sampling (24 hr clock) (HH:MM)
attribute sampling_time_T15 ioos_category String Time
attribute sampling_time_T15 long_name String Sampling Time T15
attribute sampling_time_T15 units String unitless
variable duration_days_T15   float  
attribute duration_days_T15 _FillValue float NaN
attribute duration_days_T15 actual_range float 14.13, 14.78
attribute duration_days_T15 description String duration of assay at timepoint T15
attribute duration_days_T15 ioos_category String Time
attribute duration_days_T15 long_name String Duration Days T15
attribute duration_days_T15 units String days
variable standard_ave_grams_T15   float  
attribute standard_ave_grams_T15 _FillValue float NaN
attribute standard_ave_grams_T15 actual_range float 4.597, 4.6
attribute standard_ave_grams_T15 description String average mass of eT15perimental standard at time point T15
attribute standard_ave_grams_T15 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute standard_ave_grams_T15 long_name String Standard Ave Grams T15
attribute standard_ave_grams_T15 units String grams
variable sample_mass_grams_T15   float  
attribute sample_mass_grams_T15 _FillValue float NaN
attribute sample_mass_grams_T15 actual_range float 1.351, 22.874
attribute sample_mass_grams_T15 description String average mass of coralline alga at time T15
attribute sample_mass_grams_T15 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute sample_mass_grams_T15 long_name String Sample Mass Grams T15
attribute sample_mass_grams_T15 units String grams
variable correction_factor_T15   float  
attribute correction_factor_T15 _FillValue float NaN
attribute correction_factor_T15 actual_range float 0.988, 1.031
attribute correction_factor_T15 description String correction factor; computed by dividing the final mass of the control alga (at time T15) by its initial mass (at time T0)
attribute correction_factor_T15 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute correction_factor_T15 long_name String Correction Factor T15
attribute correction_factor_T15 units String unitless
variable ave_correction_factor_T15   float  
attribute ave_correction_factor_T15 _FillValue float NaN
attribute ave_correction_factor_T15 actual_range float 1.0, 1.017
attribute ave_correction_factor_T15 description String the average correction factor computed for all control coralline algae in a given tank at time T15
attribute ave_correction_factor_T15 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute ave_correction_factor_T15 long_name String Ave Correction Factor T15
attribute ave_correction_factor_T15 units String unitless
variable corrected_initial_mass_grams_T15   float  
attribute corrected_initial_mass_grams_T15 _FillValue float NaN
attribute corrected_initial_mass_grams_T15 actual_range float 1.615, 8.935
attribute corrected_initial_mass_grams_T15 description String sample.mass.grams.T0 * ave.correction.factor.T15
attribute corrected_initial_mass_grams_T15 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute corrected_initial_mass_grams_T15 long_name String Corrected Initial Mass Grams T15
attribute corrected_initial_mass_grams_T15 units String grams
variable amount_mg_consumed_T15   float  
attribute amount_mg_consumed_T15 _FillValue float NaN
attribute amount_mg_consumed_T15 actual_range float 59.088, 800.349
attribute amount_mg_consumed_T15 description String the total amount of coralline algae consumed by a sea urchin at time T15; computed by subtracting sample.mass.grams.T15 from corrected.initial.mass.grams.T15; then * 1000
attribute amount_mg_consumed_T15 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute amount_mg_consumed_T15 long_name String Amount Mg Consumed T15
attribute amount_mg_consumed_T15 units String milligrams
variable amount_mg_consumed_day_T15   float  
attribute amount_mg_consumed_day_T15 _FillValue float NaN
attribute amount_mg_consumed_day_T15 actual_range float 4.012, 56.44
attribute amount_mg_consumed_day_T15 description String rate of algal consumption (per day); computed by dividing amount.mg.consumed.T15 by duration.days
attribute amount_mg_consumed_day_T15 ioos_category String Time
attribute amount_mg_consumed_day_T15 long_name String Amount Mg Consumed Day T15
attribute amount_mg_consumed_day_T15 units String milligrams
variable amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T15   float  
attribute amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T15 _FillValue float NaN
attribute amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T15 actual_range float 0.312, 4.441
attribute amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T15 description String rate of algal consumption (per day); standardized by the surface area of the coralline alga (using cca.surface.area.cm^2)
attribute amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T15 ioos_category String Time
attribute amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T15 long_name String Amount Mg Consumed Cm2 Day T15
attribute amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T15 units String milligrams
variable date_T20   String  
attribute date_T20 description String date of sampling at timepoint T20; formatted as yyyy-mm-dd
attribute date_T20 ioos_category String Time
attribute date_T20 long_name String Date T20
attribute date_T20 units String unitless
variable sampling_time_T20   String  
attribute sampling_time_T20 description String time of sampling (24 hr clock) (HH:MM)
attribute sampling_time_T20 ioos_category String Time
attribute sampling_time_T20 long_name String Sampling Time T20
attribute sampling_time_T20 units String unitless
variable duration_days_T20   float  
attribute duration_days_T20 _FillValue float NaN
attribute duration_days_T20 actual_range float 19.81, 20.01
attribute duration_days_T20 description String duration of assay at timepoint T20
attribute duration_days_T20 ioos_category String Time
attribute duration_days_T20 long_name String Duration Days T20
attribute duration_days_T20 units String days
variable standard_ave_grams_T20   float  
attribute standard_ave_grams_T20 _FillValue float NaN
attribute standard_ave_grams_T20 actual_range float 4.597, 4.601
attribute standard_ave_grams_T20 description String average mass of eT20perimental standard at time point T20
attribute standard_ave_grams_T20 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute standard_ave_grams_T20 long_name String Standard Ave Grams T20
attribute standard_ave_grams_T20 units String grams
variable sample_mass_grams_T20   float  
attribute sample_mass_grams_T20 _FillValue float NaN
attribute sample_mass_grams_T20 actual_range float 1.316, 22.902
attribute sample_mass_grams_T20 description String average mass of coralline alga at time T20
attribute sample_mass_grams_T20 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute sample_mass_grams_T20 long_name String Sample Mass Grams T20
attribute sample_mass_grams_T20 units String grams
variable correction_factor_T20   float  
attribute correction_factor_T20 _FillValue float NaN
attribute correction_factor_T20 actual_range float 0.995, 1.034
attribute correction_factor_T20 description String correction factor; computed by dividing the final mass of the control alga (at time T20) by its initial mass (at time T0)
attribute correction_factor_T20 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute correction_factor_T20 long_name String Correction Factor T20
attribute correction_factor_T20 units String unitless
variable ave_correction_factor_T20   float  
attribute ave_correction_factor_T20 _FillValue float NaN
attribute ave_correction_factor_T20 actual_range float 1.004, 1.02
attribute ave_correction_factor_T20 description String the average correction factor computed for all control coralline algae in a given tank at time T20
attribute ave_correction_factor_T20 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute ave_correction_factor_T20 long_name String Ave Correction Factor T20
attribute ave_correction_factor_T20 units String unitless
variable corrected_initial_mass_grams_T20   float  
attribute corrected_initial_mass_grams_T20 _FillValue float NaN
attribute corrected_initial_mass_grams_T20 actual_range float 1.619, 8.97
attribute corrected_initial_mass_grams_T20 description String sample.mass.grams.T0 * ave.correction.factor.T20
attribute corrected_initial_mass_grams_T20 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute corrected_initial_mass_grams_T20 long_name String Corrected Initial Mass Grams T20
attribute corrected_initial_mass_grams_T20 units String grams
variable amount_mg_consumed_T20   float  
attribute amount_mg_consumed_T20 _FillValue float NaN
attribute amount_mg_consumed_T20 actual_range float 80.38, 1045.949
attribute amount_mg_consumed_T20 description String the total amount of coralline algae consumed by a sea urchin at time T20; computed by subtracting sample.mass.grams.T20 from corrected.initial.mass.grams.T20; then * 1000
attribute amount_mg_consumed_T20 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute amount_mg_consumed_T20 long_name String Amount Mg Consumed T20
attribute amount_mg_consumed_T20 units String milligrams
variable amount_mg_consumed_day_T20   float  
attribute amount_mg_consumed_day_T20 _FillValue float NaN
attribute amount_mg_consumed_day_T20 actual_range float 4.044, 52.343
attribute amount_mg_consumed_day_T20 description String rate of algal consumption (per day); computed by dividing amount.mg.consumed.T20 by duration.days
attribute amount_mg_consumed_day_T20 ioos_category String Time
attribute amount_mg_consumed_day_T20 long_name String Amount Mg Consumed Day T20
attribute amount_mg_consumed_day_T20 units String milligrams
variable amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T20   float  
attribute amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T20 _FillValue float NaN
attribute amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T20 actual_range float 0.345, 4.232
attribute amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T20 description String rate of algal consumption (per day); standardized by the surface area of the coralline alga (using cca.surface.area.cm^2)
attribute amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T20 ioos_category String Time
attribute amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T20 long_name String Amount Mg Consumed Cm2 Day T20
attribute amount_mg_consumed_cm2_day_T20 units String milligrams

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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