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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
   set  data   graph     files  public Percent cover of healthy and bleached coral in Pacific Panama using the transect method in
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Coral health was monitored using a transect technique by laying 25-meter
transects along a depth contour in the reef at 3 sites within the Gulf of
Chiriqui and 3 sites within the Gulf of Panama. Benthic composition below the
tape was recorded every 25cm for the entire transect length. The process was
repeated 5 more times for a total of 6 transects for each site. \u00a0Any
coral present was classified and the health was scored using a 1-3 scale
rating, with 1 indicating a fully healthy colony, 3 indicating a bleached
colony, and 2 indicating a pale colony that fell in-between 1 and 3.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 655898
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1535007
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1535007 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String Michael E. Sieracki
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50446
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String 2019 Bleaching Transects
Percent cover of coral in Pacific Panama
PI: Aronson, R.B. (FIT), L. Toth (USGS)
Version: 2019-09-09
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2019-09-11T13:56:42Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-09-12T13:24:41Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.776377.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double -79.028
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double 8.631
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double 7.403
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double -79.028
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double -81.758
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/776377 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String algae, bco, bco-dmo, biological, bleached, Bleached_P_damicornis, Bleached_P_stellata, Bleached_P_verricosa, cca, chemical, coral, cots, COTS_damage, damage, damicornis, data, dataset, dead, dmo, erddap, fleshy, Fleshy_algae, gulf, healthy, Healthy_P_damicornis, Healthy_P_verricosa, Healthy_Porites_lobata, Healthy_Psammocora_stellata, latitude, lobata, longitude, management, oceanography, office, pale, Pale_P_damicornis, Pale_P_stellata, Pale_P_verricose, porites, preliminary, psammocora, rubble, sand, site, standing, Standing_dead_coral_no_turf, Standing_dead_coral_with_turf, stellata, time, time2, total, transect, turf, unconsolidated, Unconsolidated_rubble_with_CCA, Unconsolidated_rubble_with_turf, verricosa, verricose, with
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/776377/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/776377 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double 8.631
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'776377': {'Latitude': 'master - latitude', 'Longitude': 'master - longitude'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/776377/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String Florida Institute of Technology
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String FIT
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Dr Richard B. Aronson
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 655902
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String United States Geological Survey
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String USGS
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Dr Lauren T. Toth
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 655904
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Nancy Copley
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 50396
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Coral Climate ETP
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Coral Climate ETP
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String Coral reefs are under threat around the world, and climate change is the main reason they are declining. Knowing how local conditions on a reef exaggerate or mask the impacts of climate change make it possible to predict which reefs are most likely to survive longer and, therefore, which reefs deserve the greatest effort and funding for conservation. Reefs off the Pacific coast of Panama are vulnerable to the impacts of global climate change but are also strongly influenced by small-scale currents and other local conditions. The goal of this study is to see how those local differences affect coral growth and the ability of the corals to build reefs. Climate change appears poised to shut down reef growth off Pacific Panama within the next century. Considering that sea-level rise is accelerating at the same time, if coral reefs shut down they will not be able to protect populated shorelines from storm damage and erosion. In addition to its scientific insights, this project will provide undergraduate and graduate training, provide research training for underrepresented groups, advance women in scientific careers, and contribute important information for management and policy. The results will be incorporated into innovative curricular materials for K through 12 classes in Title-I schools in Florida aligned with Next Generation (Common Core) standards, and standards for Climate and Ocean Literacy. An annual film festival will be organized for K through 12 students to explore themes in marine science through videography.
Global climate change is now the leading cause of coral-reef degradation, but the extent to which mesoscale oceanography overprints climatic forcing is poorly understood. Previous studies in Pacific Panama showed that reef ecosystems collapsed from 4100 to 1600 years ago. The 2500-yr hiatus in reef-building occurred at locations throughout the Pacific, and the primary cause was increased variability of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. This study will determine the influence of contemporary variability in mesoscale oceanography in the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP) on variability in the condition of local coral populations. Insights from the living populations will be combined with paleoecological and geochemical studies of reef frameworks to infer past conditions that were inimical or beneficial to coral growth and reef accretion. Three primary hypotheses will be tested in Pacific Panama:
H1. Mesoscale oceanography is manifested in gradients of reef condition, coral growth, and coral physiological condition. Physiographic protection from upwelling currents and thermocline shoaling confers positive effects on coral growth rate and physiology.
H2. The impacts of mesoscale oceanographic regimes on the growth and condition of reef-corals were felt at least as far back as the mid- to late Holocene.
H3. Physiographic protection from upwelling currents and thermocline shoaling conferred positive effects on vertical reef accretion in the past and shortened the late-Holocene hiatus.
Specific research approaches to test these hypotheses will include collecting high-resolution, oceanographic time series to characterize contemporary environments along gradients of physical conditions; collecting ecological and geochemical data on the condition of living coral populations; and extracting cores from the reef frameworks and analyzing the coral assemblages taxonomically, taphonomically, and geochemically to assess patterns of biotic and paleoenvironmental variability. Strong spatial and temporal variability in the physical drivers of reef development make the ETP an excellent model system in which to examine the response of coral reefs to climate change over a range of physical regimes. This research will provide a unique opportunity to tease apart the controls on reef development across multiple spatial and temporal scales. The climatology underlying the late-Holocene hiatus was similar to probable scenarios for the next century, implying that climate change could be driving reef ecosystems of the ETP (and elsewhere) toward another collapse. Understanding how the hiatus unfolded along oceanographic gradients will increase our power to predict the future responses of reefs to a rapidly changing climate.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2019-03
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Pacific Panamá
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Collaborative Research: Climate Change, Mesoscale Oceanography, and the Dynamics of Eastern Pacific Coral Reefs
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 655899
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_website String http://www.fit.edu/research/portal/project/420/climate-change-mesoscale-oceanography-and-the-dynamics-of-eastern-pacific-coral-reefs (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2015-09
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double 7.403
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL subsetVariables String time2,Bleached_P_verricosa,Bleached_P_stellata,COTS_damage
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Percent cover of healthy and bleached coral in Pacific Panama using the transect method in 2019.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Percent cover of healthy and bleached coral in Pacific Panama using the transect method in 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double -81.758
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable Gulf   String  
attribute Gulf bcodmo_name String region
attribute Gulf description String P (Panama) and C (Chiriqui) Gulf
attribute Gulf long_name String Gulf
attribute Gulf units String unitless
variable Site   String  
attribute Site bcodmo_name String site
attribute Site description String experimental site
attribute Site long_name String Site
attribute Site units String unitless
variable latitude   double  
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute latitude actual_range double 7.403, 8.631
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude bcodmo_name String latitude
attribute latitude colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute latitude colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute latitude description String latitude in decimal degrees north
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/ (external link)
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
variable longitude   double  
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute longitude actual_range double -81.758, -79.028
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude bcodmo_name String longitude
attribute longitude colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute longitude colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute longitude description String longitude in decimal degrees east
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/ (external link)
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable time2   String  
attribute time2 bcodmo_name String season
attribute time2 description String season and year that the transect was taken
attribute time2 long_name String Time
attribute time2 units String season year
variable Transect   byte  
attribute Transect _FillValue byte 127
attribute Transect actual_range byte 1, 6
attribute Transect bcodmo_name String transect
attribute Transect description String transect number
attribute Transect long_name String Transect
attribute Transect units String unitless
variable Healthy_P_damicornis   byte  
attribute Healthy_P_damicornis _FillValue byte 127
attribute Healthy_P_damicornis actual_range byte 0, 89
attribute Healthy_P_damicornis bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Healthy_P_damicornis description String frequency of healthy Pocillopora damicornis identified in the transect; rated as 1 indicating no bleaching
attribute Healthy_P_damicornis long_name String Healthy P Damicornis
attribute Healthy_P_damicornis units String unitless
variable Pale_P_damicornis   byte  
attribute Pale_P_damicornis _FillValue byte 127
attribute Pale_P_damicornis actual_range byte 0, 26
attribute Pale_P_damicornis bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Pale_P_damicornis description String frequency of pale Pocillopora damicornis identified in the transect; rated as 2 indicating lower health
attribute Pale_P_damicornis long_name String Pale P Damicornis
attribute Pale_P_damicornis units String unitless
variable Bleached_P_damicornis   byte  
attribute Bleached_P_damicornis _FillValue byte 127
attribute Bleached_P_damicornis actual_range byte 0, 1
attribute Bleached_P_damicornis bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Bleached_P_damicornis description String frequency of bleached Pocillopora damicornis identified in the transect; rated as 3 indicating bleached
attribute Bleached_P_damicornis long_name String Bleached P Damicornis
attribute Bleached_P_damicornis units String unitless
variable Healthy_P_verricosa   byte  
attribute Healthy_P_verricosa _FillValue byte 127
attribute Healthy_P_verricosa actual_range byte 0, 53
attribute Healthy_P_verricosa bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Healthy_P_verricosa description String frequency of healthy Pocillopora verricosa identified in the transect; rated as 1 indicating no bleaching
attribute Healthy_P_verricosa long_name String Healthy P Verricosa
attribute Healthy_P_verricosa units String unitless
variable Pale_P_verricose   byte  
attribute Pale_P_verricose _FillValue byte 127
attribute Pale_P_verricose actual_range byte 0, 6
attribute Pale_P_verricose bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Pale_P_verricose description String frequency of pale Pocillopora verricosa identified in the transect; rated as 2 indicating lower health
attribute Pale_P_verricose long_name String Pale P Verricose
attribute Pale_P_verricose units String unitless
variable Bleached_P_verricosa   byte  
attribute Bleached_P_verricosa _FillValue byte 127
attribute Bleached_P_verricosa actual_range byte 0, 0
attribute Bleached_P_verricosa bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Bleached_P_verricosa description String frequency of bleached Pocillopora verricosa identified in the transect; rated as 3 indicating bleached
attribute Bleached_P_verricosa long_name String Bleached P Verricosa
attribute Bleached_P_verricosa units String unitless
variable Healthy_Psammocora_stellata   byte  
attribute Healthy_Psammocora_stellata _FillValue byte 127
attribute Healthy_Psammocora_stellata actual_range byte 0, 10
attribute Healthy_Psammocora_stellata bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Healthy_Psammocora_stellata description String frequency of healthy colonies of the species identified in the transect; rated as 1 indicating no bleaching
attribute Healthy_Psammocora_stellata long_name String Healthy Psammocora Stellata
attribute Healthy_Psammocora_stellata units String unitless
variable Pale_P_stellata   byte  
attribute Pale_P_stellata _FillValue byte 127
attribute Pale_P_stellata actual_range byte 0, 1
attribute Pale_P_stellata bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Pale_P_stellata description String frequency of pale colonies of the species identified in the transect; rated as 2 indicating lower health
attribute Pale_P_stellata long_name String Pale P Stellata
attribute Pale_P_stellata units String unitless
variable Bleached_P_stellata   byte  
attribute Bleached_P_stellata _FillValue byte 127
attribute Bleached_P_stellata actual_range byte 0, 0
attribute Bleached_P_stellata bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Bleached_P_stellata description String frequency of bleached colonies of the species identified in the transect; rated as 3 indicating bleached
attribute Bleached_P_stellata long_name String Bleached P Stellata
attribute Bleached_P_stellata units String unitless
variable COTS_damage   byte  
attribute COTS_damage _FillValue byte 127
attribute COTS_damage actual_range byte 0, 0
attribute COTS_damage bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute COTS_damage description String frequency of harm identified to the coral structure caused by crown of thorns
attribute COTS_damage long_name String COTS Damage
attribute COTS_damage units String unitless
variable Standing_dead_coral_no_turf   byte  
attribute Standing_dead_coral_no_turf _FillValue byte 127
attribute Standing_dead_coral_no_turf actual_range byte 0, 9
attribute Standing_dead_coral_no_turf bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Standing_dead_coral_no_turf description String frequency of identified dead coral colonies that did not have turf starfish (COTS)
attribute Standing_dead_coral_no_turf long_name String Standing Dead Coral No Turf
attribute Standing_dead_coral_no_turf units String unitless
variable Standing_dead_coral_with_turf   byte  
attribute Standing_dead_coral_with_turf _FillValue byte 127
attribute Standing_dead_coral_with_turf actual_range byte 0, 65
attribute Standing_dead_coral_with_turf bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Standing_dead_coral_with_turf description String frequency of identified dead coral colonies that had turf algae colonizing them
attribute Standing_dead_coral_with_turf long_name String Standing Dead Coral With Turf
attribute Standing_dead_coral_with_turf units String unitless
variable Unconsolidated_rubble_with_turf   byte  
attribute Unconsolidated_rubble_with_turf _FillValue byte 127
attribute Unconsolidated_rubble_with_turf actual_range byte 0, 85
attribute Unconsolidated_rubble_with_turf bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Unconsolidated_rubble_with_turf description String frequency of rubble on the ground that had turf algae growing on it
attribute Unconsolidated_rubble_with_turf long_name String Unconsolidated Rubble With Turf
attribute Unconsolidated_rubble_with_turf units String unitless
variable Unconsolidated_rubble_with_CCA   byte  
attribute Unconsolidated_rubble_with_CCA _FillValue byte 127
attribute Unconsolidated_rubble_with_CCA actual_range byte 0, 75
attribute Unconsolidated_rubble_with_CCA bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Unconsolidated_rubble_with_CCA description String frequency of rubble on the ground that had crustose coralline algae (CCA) growing on it
attribute Unconsolidated_rubble_with_CCA long_name String Unconsolidated Rubble With CCA
attribute Unconsolidated_rubble_with_CCA units String unitless
variable Fleshy_algae   byte  
attribute Fleshy_algae _FillValue byte 127
attribute Fleshy_algae actual_range byte 0, 24
attribute Fleshy_algae bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Fleshy_algae description String frequency of fleshy algae observed in the transect
attribute Fleshy_algae long_name String Fleshy Algae
attribute Fleshy_algae units String unitless
variable CCA   byte  
attribute CCA _FillValue byte 127
attribute CCA actual_range byte 0, 1
attribute CCA bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute CCA description String frequency of crustose coralline algae (CCA) observed in the transect
attribute CCA long_name String CCA
attribute CCA units String unitless
variable Sand   byte  
attribute Sand _FillValue byte 127
attribute Sand actual_range byte 0, 5
attribute Sand bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Sand description String frequency of sand observed in the transect
attribute Sand long_name String Sand
attribute Sand units String unitless
variable Healthy_Porites_lobata   byte  
attribute Healthy_Porites_lobata _FillValue byte 127
attribute Healthy_Porites_lobata actual_range byte 0, 6
attribute Healthy_Porites_lobata bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Healthy_Porites_lobata description String the frequency of healthy colonies of the identified species in the transect; rated as 1 indicating good health
attribute Healthy_Porites_lobata long_name String Healthy Porites Lobata
attribute Healthy_Porites_lobata units String unitless
variable Total   byte  
attribute Total _FillValue byte 127
attribute Total actual_range byte 96, 109
attribute Total bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Total description String the total number of observations in the transect
attribute Total long_name String Total
attribute Total units String unitless

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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