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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Chronoamperometry data from cathodic poised potential experiments with subsurface crustal
samples from CORK borehole observatories at North Pond on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge during R/V
Atlantis cruise AT39-01
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Samples for this study come from CORK observatories installed at IODP Holes
U1382A and U1383C as described elsewhere (Edwards et al., 2012b). In brief,
instrument strings containing OsmoSampler systems (Wheat et al., 2011) were
deployed at different depths within the holes from 2011-2017. Additional
OsmoSampler systems were deployed at the wellhead of the CORKs in 2014 and
were inoculated with bottom seawater, making them useful for identifying
differences between crustal subsurface and bottom seawater inoculated
microbial communities. OsmoSampler systems included Flow-through Osmo
Colonization Systems (FLOCS) for mineral colonization experiments, as
described elsewhere (Ramrez et al., 2019). Each FLOCS contained sterile
(autoclaved and ethanol-rinsed) substrates including crushed basalts, pyrite,
pyrrhotite, or inert glass beads housed within polycarbonate cassettes and
sleeves. Fluids were introduced into the FLOCS via the OsmoSampler pumps,
allowing fluid microbial communities to colonize the substrates.

All FLOCS were recovered in October 2017 during cruise AT39-01 of the RV
Atlantis with the ROV Jason (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution) following
methods described elsewhere (Ramrez et al., 2019). In brief, the instrument
strings with the downhole FLOCS were pulled up to the ship on a wire, then
immediately disassembled to store the FLOCS in a cold room. Wellhead FLOCS
incubated in milkcrates attached to crustal fluid umbilicals at the seafloor
were also collected on this cruise with the ROV. FLOCS contents were
distributed inside an ethanol-rinsed and UV-irradiated HEPA-filtered hood
using sterile instruments. Substrates for the experiment were stored cold
(2-4C) and in the dark in sterile centrifuge tubes with ultrafiltered (0.22
m-mesh Millipore Sterivex and 0.02 m-mesh Whatman Anotop 25 filters) crustal
fluid until incubation at the shore-based laboratory. Parallel samples for
initial characterization of the substrate biofilms were transferred to sterile
cyrovials, flash frozen with liquid nitrogen, and stored at -80C until
analysis. In addition to the FLOCS samples, 4-10L samples of raw and
unfiltered crustal fluids were collected into ethanol-rinsed cubitainers after
collection into gamma-irradiated bags on the seafloor using a Mobile Pumping
System. Cubitainers were stored cold (2-4C) and in the dark for approximately
one year before beginning the experiments.

A detailed description of the cathodic poised potential protocol used is
available elsewhere (Jones and Orcutt, 2019). In brief, glass two-cell, three-
electrode MFC systems (Adams and Chittenden, CA, USA) were used as incubations
chambers, run in parallel with a multichannel potentiostat (model CHI1030C,
CHI Instruments, TX, USA). Nafion 117 proton exchange membrane (Fuel Cell
Store, TX) separated the half-cells. Cells were filled with distilled water
and autoclaved prior to filling with media and sample inocula. Ag/AgCl
reference electrodes (Gamry Instruments, PA, USA part 932-00018 and/or
Analytical Instrument Systems, NY, USA) were calibrated before each run by
immersion in 3 M NaCl and compared against a known electrode kept only for
that purpose (max +/- 20 mV drift from the value of lab master electrode).
Working electrodes (WEs) were 2 4 cm2 Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coated glass
slides (Delta Technologies Ltd, CO, USA part CB-50IN-1111), constructed for
MFC as described elsewhere (Rowe et al., 2015). Counter electrodes (CEs) were
carbon cloth with a 4 4 cm2 surface area. Electrodes were sterilized by
rinsing with 80% ethanol, air-drying, then exposing to UV radiation for 15
minutes per side.

Each experiment consisted of five treatments: Three MFCs filled with buffered
and double autoclaved crustal fluid (cool and oxic), inoculated with samples,
and incubated with a WE set poised at -200 mV versus a standard hydrogen
electrode (SHE) referred to as the Echem treatments; one MFC filled with the
same fluid and WE but without any sample inoculum referred to as the Fluid
treatment; and one glass bottle with a mixed sample inoculum and ITO electrode
without any voltage applied referred to as the Offline treatment. Samples were
transferred into the MFCs in HEPA-filtered, UV-irradiated biosafety cabinet or
hood using sterile tools. An aliquot of each sample was also collected into a
sterile plastic tube for microbial community analysis representing a time zero
(T0) condition that may have changed from the Shipboard (SB) initial
condition. For the Echem and Fluid treatments, the counter cell redox couple
was H2O/O2. Testing (data not shown) determined that a strong kill control
method was necessary to achieve sterility of the crustal fluid, consisting of
1 h autoclaving at 121C, incubation at room temperature in the dark for ~24 h
to allow for spore germination, and then another 1 h autoclaving at 121C
before cooling down to 4C for the addition of substrate. Sodium bicarbonate
was added to the media (0.1 M) as a buffer. MFCs were incubated at 4C in the

Once the MFCs were constructed, a cyclic voltammetry (CV) sweep was performed
for each cell with the potentiostat before each poised potential experiment at
a scan rate of 0.1 V s-1 and sample interval of 0.001 V, across -1 to 1 V
range. Then the chronoamperometry (CA) experiments began by applying a
constant voltage (-200 mV versus SHE) to the Echem and Fluid MFCs. Current
generation was monitored and recorded until current changes began to decline
after a period of approximately 15 days. At the end of each CA experiment, two
further CV sweeps were performed: one with the incubated ITO electrode (Tend
i) and one with a fresh ITO electrode dipped into the incubated media (Tend
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 707761
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1536539
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1536539 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String Barbara Ransom
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 661067
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String AT39-01 CathodicEET Chronoamperometry
PI: Beth Orcutt
Data Version 1: 2019-10-30
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2019-10-30T15:29:49Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2020-02-11T16:02:29Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.780127.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double -46.053
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double 22.8023
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double 22.7564
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double -46.053
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double -46.0817
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/780127 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_acronym String Voltammetry Analyzers
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 780221
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String Instruments that obtain information about an analyte by applying a potential and measuring the current produced in the analyte.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB35/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String Voltammetry Analyzers
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 698
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_supplied_name String multichannel potentiostat (model CHI1030C, CHI Instruments, TX, USA)

attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String bco, bco-dmo, biological, ch1, CH1_A, CH1_uA_per_cm2, ch2, CH2_A, CH2_uA_per_cm2, ch3, CH3_A, CH3_uA_per_cm2, ch4, CH4_A, CH4_uA_per_cm2, chemical, cm2, cruise, data, dataset, date, depth, dmo, erddap, experiment, ExperimentID, fluid, fluidcollection, FluidcollectionCruise, FluidSource, latitude, longitude, management, min, oceanography, office, per, preliminary, source, time, Time_d, Time_h, Time_min, Time_s, u, water, WaterDepth
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/780127/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/780127 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double 22.8023
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'780127': {'Latitude': 'master - latitude', 'Longitude': 'master - longitude'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/780127/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Beth N. Orcutt
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 565799
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Amber York
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 643627
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String North Pond 2017
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String North Pond 2017
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String NSF Award Abstract:
Seawater circulates through the upper part of the oceanic crust much like groundwater flows through continental aquifers. However, in the ocean this seawater circulation, many times heated by buried magmatic bodies, transports and releases 25% of the Earth's heat. The rate of fluid flow through ocean crust is estimated to be equal to the amount of water delivered by rivers to the ocean. Much of what we know of this subseafloor fluid flow comes from studies in the eastern Pacific Ocean on ocean crust created by medium and fast spreading mid-ocean ridges. These studies indicate that seawater and its circulation through the seafloor significantly impact crustal evolution and biogeochemical cycles in the ocean and affect the biosphere in ways that are just now beginning to be quantified and understood. To expand this understanding, this research focuses on fluid flow of seafloor generated by slow spreading ridges, like those in the Atlantic, Indian and Arctic Oceans because it is significantly different in structure, mineralogy, and morphology than that formed at fast and intermediate spreading ridges. This research returns to North Pond, a long-term; seafloor; fluid flow monitoring site, drilled and instumented by the Ocean Drilling Program in the Atlantic Ocean. This research site was punctured by boreholes in which fluid flow and geochemical and biological samplers have been deployed for a number of years to collect data and samples. It also provides resources for shipboard and on-shore geochemical and biological analysis. Broader impacts of the work include sensor and technology development, which increases infrastructure for science and has commercial applications. It also provides training for students and the integration of education and research at three US academic institutions, one of which is an EPSCoR state (Mississippi), and supports a PI whose gender is under-represented in sciences and engineering. Public outreach will be carried out in conjunction with the Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations.
This project completes a long-term biogeochemical and hydrologic study of ridge flank hydrothermal processes on slow-spreading, 8 million year old crust on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The site, North Pond, is an isolated northeast-trending sediment pond, bounded by undersea mountains that have been studied since the 1970s. During Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 336 in 2011 and an expedition five months later (2012), sensors, samplers, and experiments were deployed in four borehole observatories drilled into the seafloor that penetrated into volcanic crust, with the purpose of monitoring changes in hydrologic properties, crustal fluid composition and mineral alteration, among other objectives. Wellhead sampling in 2012 and 2014 already revealed changes in crustal fluid compositions; and associated pressure data confirm that the boreholes are sealed and overpressured, reflecting a change in the formation as the boreholes recover from drilling disturbances. This research includes a 13-day oceanographic expedition and use of on-site robotically operated vehicles to recover downhole instrument packages at North Pond. It will allow the sampling of crustal fluids, recovering pressure data, and measuring fluid flow rates. Ship- and shore-based analyses will be used to address fundamental questions related to the hydrogeology of hydrothermal processes on slow-spread crust.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2018-09
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String North Pond, Mid-Atlantic Ridge flank CORKs
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Collaborative Research: Completing North Pond Borehole Experiments to Elucidate the Hydrology of Young, Slow-Spread Crust
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 707762
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_website String http://www.darkenergybiosphere.org/research-activities/field-sites/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2015-10
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double 22.7564
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Chronoamperometry data from cathodic poised potential experiments with subsurface crustal samples from CORK borehole observatories at North Pond on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge during R/V Atlantis cruise AT39-01.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Chronoamperometry data from cathodic poised potential experiments with subsurface crustal samples from CORK borehole observatories at North Pond on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge during R/V Atlantis cruise AT39-01
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double -46.0817
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable Time_s   float  
attribute Time_s _FillValue float NaN
attribute Time_s actual_range float 50.0, 1270000.0
attribute Time_s bcodmo_name String time_elapsed
attribute Time_s description String time in seconds (s) from start of experiment
attribute Time_s long_name String Time S
attribute Time_s nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ELTMZZZZ/ (external link)
attribute Time_s units String seconds (s)
variable Time_min   float  
attribute Time_min _FillValue float NaN
attribute Time_min actual_range float 0.83, 21100.0
attribute Time_min bcodmo_name String time_elapsed
attribute Time_min description String time in minutes (min) from start of experiment
attribute Time_min long_name String Time Min
attribute Time_min nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ELTMZZZZ/ (external link)
attribute Time_min units String minutes (min)
variable Time_h   float  
attribute Time_h _FillValue float NaN
attribute Time_h actual_range float 0.01, 352.49
attribute Time_h bcodmo_name String time_elapsed
attribute Time_h description String time in hours (h) from start of experiment
attribute Time_h long_name String Time H
attribute Time_h nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ELTMZZZZ/ (external link)
attribute Time_h units String hours (h)
variable Time_d   float  
attribute Time_d _FillValue float NaN
attribute Time_d actual_range float 0.0, 14.69
attribute Time_d bcodmo_name String time_elapsed
attribute Time_d description String time in days (d) from start of experiment
attribute Time_d long_name String Time D
attribute Time_d nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ELTMZZZZ/ (external link)
attribute Time_d units String days (d)
variable CH1_A   float  
attribute CH1_A _FillValue float NaN
attribute CH1_A actual_range float -1.37E-4, -2.81E-6
attribute CH1_A bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute CH1_A description String current of the Channel 1 electrode at each time point
attribute CH1_A long_name String CH1 A
attribute CH1_A units String amps (A)
variable CH2_A   float  
attribute CH2_A _FillValue float NaN
attribute CH2_A actual_range float -3.88E-5, -1.72E-6
attribute CH2_A bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute CH2_A description String current of the Channel 2 electrode at each time point
attribute CH2_A long_name String CH2 A
attribute CH2_A units String amps (A)
variable CH3_A   float  
attribute CH3_A _FillValue float NaN
attribute CH3_A actual_range float -1.05E-4, -1.2E-6
attribute CH3_A bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute CH3_A description String current of the Channel 3 electrode at each time point
attribute CH3_A long_name String CH3 A
attribute CH3_A units String amps (A)
variable CH4_A   float  
attribute CH4_A _FillValue float NaN
attribute CH4_A actual_range float -3.48E-5, -4.32E-7
attribute CH4_A bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute CH4_A description String current of the Channel 4 electrode at each time point
attribute CH4_A long_name String CH4 A
attribute CH4_A units String amps (A)
variable CH1_uA_per_cm2   float  
attribute CH1_uA_per_cm2 _FillValue float NaN
attribute CH1_uA_per_cm2 actual_range float -17.1, -0.351
attribute CH1_uA_per_cm2 bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute CH1_uA_per_cm2 description String current density for the Channel 1 electrode at each time point
attribute CH1_uA_per_cm2 long_name String CH1 U A Per Cm2
attribute CH1_uA_per_cm2 units String microamps per square centimeter (uA cm-2)
variable CH2_uA_per_cm2   float  
attribute CH2_uA_per_cm2 _FillValue float NaN
attribute CH2_uA_per_cm2 actual_range float -4.85, -0.215
attribute CH2_uA_per_cm2 bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute CH2_uA_per_cm2 description String current density for the Channel 2 electrode at each time point
attribute CH2_uA_per_cm2 long_name String CH2 U A Per Cm2
attribute CH2_uA_per_cm2 units String microamps per square centimeter (uA cm-2)
variable CH3_uA_per_cm2   float  
attribute CH3_uA_per_cm2 _FillValue float NaN
attribute CH3_uA_per_cm2 actual_range float -13.2, -0.15
attribute CH3_uA_per_cm2 bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute CH3_uA_per_cm2 description String current density for the Channel 3 electrode at each time point
attribute CH3_uA_per_cm2 long_name String CH3 U A Per Cm2
attribute CH3_uA_per_cm2 units String microamps per square centimeter (uA cm-2)
variable CH4_uA_per_cm2   float  
attribute CH4_uA_per_cm2 _FillValue float NaN
attribute CH4_uA_per_cm2 actual_range float -4.35, -0.0541
attribute CH4_uA_per_cm2 bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute CH4_uA_per_cm2 description String current density for the Channel 4 electrode at each time point
attribute CH4_uA_per_cm2 long_name String CH4 U A Per Cm2
attribute CH4_uA_per_cm2 units String microamps per square centimeter (uA cm-2)
variable ExperimentID   String  
attribute ExperimentID bcodmo_name String exp_id
attribute ExperimentID description String text description of experiment with microbial fuel cells; values of NP11, NP12, NP13, NP14 or NP15
attribute ExperimentID long_name String Experiment ID
attribute ExperimentID units String unitless
variable FluidSource   String  
attribute FluidSource bcodmo_name String site_descrip
attribute FluidSource description String name of the IODP borehole location where crustal fluid was collected for preparing microbial fuel cell media; values of U1382A (from IODP Hole U1382A shallow horizon), U1383Cdeep (from IODP Hole U1383C deep horizon), or U1383Cshallow (from IODP Hole U1383C shallow horizon)
attribute FluidSource long_name String Fluid Source
attribute FluidSource units String unitless
variable FluidcollectionCruise   String  
attribute FluidcollectionCruise bcodmo_name String cruise_id
attribute FluidcollectionCruise description String name of the cruise and ROV Jason dive number when the crustal fluid was collected; values of AT39-01 (R/V Atlantis cruise AT39-01) + J2-#### (ROV Jason dive number)
attribute FluidcollectionCruise long_name String Fluidcollection Cruise
attribute FluidcollectionCruise units String unitless
variable FluidcollectionDate   String  
attribute FluidcollectionDate bcodmo_name String date
attribute FluidcollectionDate description String date of the collection of the crustal fluids, in ISO 8601 format yyyy-mm-dd
attribute FluidcollectionDate long_name String Fluidcollection Date
attribute FluidcollectionDate nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/ (external link)
attribute FluidcollectionDate source_name String FluidcollectionDate
attribute FluidcollectionDate time_precision String 1970-01-01
attribute FluidcollectionDate units String unitless
variable latitude   double  
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute latitude actual_range double 22.7564, 22.8023
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude bcodmo_name String latitude
attribute latitude colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute latitude colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute latitude description String Latitude of the FLOCS experiment
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/ (external link)
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
variable longitude   double  
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute longitude actual_range double -46.0817, -46.053
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude bcodmo_name String longitude
attribute longitude colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute longitude colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute longitude description String Longitude of the FLOCS experiment
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/ (external link)
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable WaterDepth   short  
attribute WaterDepth _FillValue short 32767
attribute WaterDepth actual_range short 4414, 4483
attribute WaterDepth bcodmo_name String depth_w
attribute WaterDepth description String water depth to seafloor of the IODP Hole
attribute WaterDepth long_name String Water Depth
attribute WaterDepth units String meters (m)

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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